Cellular Respiration. Cues Vocabulary Mitochondria Cellular Respiration ATP Cellular Energy Stage 1 Stage 2 Fermentation Cellular Respiration

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  • Cellular Respiration

  • CuesVocabularyMitochondriaCellular RespirationATPCellular EnergyStage 1Stage 2FermentationCellular Respiration

  • VocabularyCellular Respiration the transfer of energy from an organic compound into ATPFermentation the breakdown of carbohydrates by enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or mold in the absence of oxygenPyruvate- an ion of a three-carbon organic acid called pyruvic acid.

  • Energy:Energy for living things comes from food. Originally, the energy in food comes from the sun.

  • Organisms that use light energy from the sun to produce foodautotrophs (auto = self)Ex: plants and some microorganisms (some bacteria and protists)

  • Organisms that CANNOT use the suns energy to make foodheterotrophsEx: animals and most microorganisms

  • All energy is stored in the bonds of compoundsbreaking the bond releases the energy

    When the cell has energy available it can store this energy by adding a phosphate group to ADP, producing ATP

  • MitochondriaThe matrix where 3-carbon pieces that came from carbohydrates are broken down to (CO2 and water) The cristae is where ATP is made

  • Cellular RespirationIs a series of reactions where fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, mostly glucose, are broken down to make CO2, water, and energy.

  • ATPMost of the energy from cell respiration is converted into ATPATP is a substance that powers most cell activities.

  • Cellular RespirationCellular EnergyThe Stages of Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration has two stages. Glycolysis The first stage of cellular respiration is called glycolysis.

    Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration The second stage of cellular respiration is either aerobic respiration (in the presence of oxygen) or anaerobic respiration (in the absence of oxygen). A large amount of ATP is made during aerobic respiration. NAD+ is recycled during the anaerobic process of fermentation.

  • Cellular RespirationStage One: Breakdown of GlucoseGlycolysis Glucose is broken down to pyruvate during glycolysis, making some ATP.

  • Cellular RespirationStage Two: Production of ATPKrebs Cycle The Krebs cycle is a series of reactions that produce energy-storing molecules during aerobic respiration. Electron Transport Chain During aerobic respiration, large amounts of ATP are made in an electron transport chain.

  • Cellular RespirationFermentation in the Absence of OxygenFermentation When oxygen is not present, fermentation follows glycolysis, regenerating NAD+ needed for glycolysis to continue.Lactic Acid Fermentation In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is converted to lactate.

  • Cellular RespirationCellular Respiration is a metabolic process like burning fuelReleases much of the energy in food to make ATPThis ATP provides cells with the energy they need to carry out the activities of life. C6H12O6+O2 CO2 + H2O + ATP

  • *1. g. Students know the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical-bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide. Mitochondria consist of a matrix where three-carbon fragments originating from carbohydrates are broken down (to CO2 and water) and of the cristae where ATP is produced. Cell respiration occurs in a series of reactions in which fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, mostly glucose, are broken down to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy. Most of the energy from cell respiration is converted into ATP, a substance that powers most cell activities.

    1. i.* Students know how chemiosmotic gradients in the mitochondria and chloroplast store energy for ATP production. Enzymes called ATP synthase, located within the thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts and cristae membranes in mitochondria, synthesize most ATP within cells. The thylakoid and cristae membranes are impermeable to protons except at pores that are coupled with the ATP synthase. The potential energy of the proton concentration gradient drives ATP synthesis as the protons move through the ATP synthase pores. The proton gradient is established by energy furnished by a flow of electrons passing through the electron transport system located within these membranes.

    *11******12*13*14*15*1. g. Students know the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical-bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide. Mitochondria consist of a matrix where three-carbon fragments originating from carbohydrates are broken down (to CO2 and water) and of the cristae where ATP is produced. Cell respiration occurs in a series of reactions in which fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, mostly glucose, are broken down to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy. Most of the energy from cell respiration is converted into ATP, a substance that powers most cell activities.

    1. i.* Students know how chemiosmotic gradients in the mitochondria and chloroplast store energy for ATP production. Enzymes called ATP synthase, located within the thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts and cristae membranes in mitochondria, synthesize most ATP within cells. The thylakoid and cristae membranes are impermeable to protons except at pores that are coupled with the ATP synthase. The potential energy of the proton concentration gradient drives ATP synthesis as the protons move through the ATP synthase pores. The proton gradient is established by energy furnished by a flow of electrons passing through the electron transport system located within these membranes. *

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