Cellular Respiration: Food  Energy Respiration= “Breathe” Energy released in cells with oxygen

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  • Cellular Respiration: Food EnergyRespiration= BreatheEnergy released in cells with oxygen

  • Photosynthesis: Making Chemical Energycalorie: the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius. The Calorie (capital C) that is used on food labels is a kilocalorie, or 1000 caloriesIn order to measure how much energy there is in food, scientists burn the food in the presence of oxygen in a test tube, and see how much energy is released to make 1 gram of water raise 1 degree Celsius.

  • Cellular Respiration: Energy & OxygenCellular Respiration: process in mitochondria that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in presence of oxygenFormula for Cell Respiration:6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy

    Formula for Photosynthesis:6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2Respiration is just the opposite of Photosynthesis

  • Cell respiration: Making Chemical EnergyThe activities of the cell powered by chemical fuels like Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) has structure similar to ATP but with only 2 phosphate groups

    POWER!Review (dont copy):Online activitiy 7.3

  • Cell respiration: Making Chem Energy

  • Photosynthesis & Cell RespirationPlants

    Glucose (food) from Photosynthesis made in Chloroplast

    Formula for Photosynthesis:6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2

    Food energy for cellsDuring Cell Respiration inMitochondria

    Formula for Cell Respiration:6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy

    AnimalsFood Digested, molecules enterBodies cells

    Food energy for cellsDuring Cell Respiration inMitochondria

    Formula for Cell Respiration:6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy

    Dont copy this

  • Cellular Respiration: Energy & Oxygen1st Step in Cell Respiration:Glycolysis- where 1 molecule of glucose broken in into 2 molecules pyruvic acid and 4 molecules of ATP outside mitochondria (2 used initially)

  • Glycolysis: ReviewAnaerobic: process that does not require oxygenFermentation happens after Glycolysis when there is no oxygen.During Glycolysis, 2 ATP are used up, then 4 high-energy electrons passes to NAD+ to make NADH to hold the electrons, and add 2 phosphate groups, which makes 4 ADP into 4 ATP molecules and results in 2 pyruvic acids. This process is fast, but can only process until all of the electrons are taken up.

  • FermentationFermentation: releases energy from food molecules by producing ARP in the absence of oxygen.

    Alcoholic Fermentaiton:Pyruvic acid + NADH alcohol + CO2 + NAD+

    2 pyruvates turn into lactate eachWhile NADH releases an electron toBecome NAD+

    Lactic Acid Fermentation:Pyruvic acid + NADH lactic acid + NAD+ 2 pyruvic acids turn into Acetaldehyde each releasing carbon dioxide and then acetaldehyde turns into ethyl alcohol. The Carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol are released as wastes. As this is going on, NADH releases an electron to become NAD+

  • Cellular Respiration: Energy & Oxygen2nd Step in CR:Krebs Cycle- in mitochondria pyruvic acid is broken into four C02; cycle produces 2 molecules of ATP

  • Krebs cycleThis goes on twice because there are 2 pyruvic acid molecules produced from glycolysisAerobic: process that requires oxygen.Pyruvic acid adds 3 molecules of H2O, and releases a CO2 and adds an electron to NAD+ making NADH. This forms Acetyl CoA which has 2 carbons. Acetyle CoA combines with a 4 carbon compound forming citric acid. Citric acid is broken down into a 5 carbon compound by releasing 2 CO2, electrons join NAD+ and FAD making NADH and FADH2, one ATP is generated by adding a P group to ADP.

  • Cellular Respiration: Energy & OxygenLast step in CR:

    Electron Transport Chain- in mitochondria inner membrane using electrons from Krebs cycle to convert ADP into 34 ATPs

  • Electron transport chainCopy #s 1 - 5

  • Energy Released in ATP formGlycolysis produces 2 ATP molecules per glucose and that is without oxygen.In the presence of oxygen. The Krebs cycle and the Electron transport chain and ATP synthase action, it makes about 34 ATP molecules. The 36 ATP molecules the cell makes per glucose represent about 38% of the total energy of glucose.

  • Cellular Respiration OverviewGlycolysisFermentationAlcoholic Fermentation: YeastsProduce = alcohol + CO2 And NAD+Lactic Acid Fermentation:Rapid exercise, body cantsupply enough O2 for ATP, buildUp in muscles, breath heavy = lactic acid and NAD+Krebs CycleElectron Transport ChainNo OxygenOxygen RequiredFor long term exercise, the body uses cellular respiration to produce energy

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