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Chapter 10 Meet Needs of Students with Challenging Behaviors. Positive Strategies for Difficult Situations. Sights to See Solving Social Problems. Resolving Conflict www.edutopia.org/resolving-conflict-ofarrell-middle-school Smart Hearts: Social and Emotional Learning Overview - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Chapter 10 Meet Needs of Students with Challenging Behaviors

AutoCAD Architecture 2008: Part I: Getting StartedInclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter 10
Positive Strategies for Difficult Situations
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
http://www.edutopia.org/social-emotional-learning-overview-video
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
These Kids Are Driving Me Crazy and I Don’t Know What to Do!!
Some Common Problems in Classrooms
Student is off task.
Is unprepared for class.
Hits other students or the teacher.
Insults other students.
Withdraws and does not want to participate.
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
What Works?
Encourage cooperative learning and play groups.
Teach in fun and engaging ways.
Study culture or “difference” of the week in the room to promote understanding and acceptance of differences.
Have students help make rules and structure learning activities in the classroom.
Have students help other students—use peer mediation, peer buddies, circles of friends.
Institute sharing time to talk about events in life.
Show concern and care.
Emphasize group work. Ask “Do you need to . . . ?” Give options.
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Intimidation—misuse of power.
Teachers on Dealing with Problem Behaviors
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Quincy: A Student out of Control
I can’t do anything with him. He hits other students all the time!
When I took over the class I made it fun and inviting
He’s afraid and angry at home, treated with disrespect at school.
“The other teachers wanted to get rid of Quincy. Not my student!”
I built on his interests and gave him choices.
Quincy’s behavior began to change.
He began to do his academic work, and to learn.
The most improved award for Quincy
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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KEY DECISION
Do we try to control students through rewards and punishments?
Do we label them disturbed and get them out of our classes and into special education?
Or do we work to build relationships, care, and respect?
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
What do we know about punishment?
eliminates behaviors in the short run….if sufficiently strong and remains in place.
does not address underlying needs
allows distancing from the person punished
reduces or eliminates guilt, ensuring reliance on external force for change
PUNISHMENT . . .
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Rewards and Reinforcers
A reinforcer is a stimulus that results in a strengthening or reduction of a behavior
A reward is a stimulus that is used by someone in authority to attempt to control the behavior of another person
(Exception - we can give rewards to ourselves).
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
They . . .
punish
encourage mediocrity
REWARDS?
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
teach.
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Proactive Strategies
Positive rules (small #): like (1) Try, (2) be safe, (3) be kind, (4) work hard, and (5) be respectful
Understanding that problem behaviors reflect a need of a child.
Contracts to find new ways to act
Adults who can act as mediators and supporters to help children learn to develop solutions
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Building community in the school
Peer mediation and conflict resolution
Teaching students how to support one another through peer buddies and circles of support
Professional support—individual and group counseling, support groups
Mentors through such programs as Big Brothers and Big Sisters
A building support team
Interagency support and intervention for families
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Behavioral Challenges
Community and positive behavior support
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Weekly progress report
A safe place that the student can work
Thinking about WHY the student is doing what he / she is doing
Circle of support
Hourly Progress Report
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Restorative Justice - Healing Hurt
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Underachieving
Isolating
Distracting
Disruptive
Dangerous
Survival
Power
Fun
Freedom
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Problem
Behavior is causing us or others trouble, so we want to eliminate it.
Behavior, which is learned, is communicating something important.
Assessment
Goal
Intervention
Reduce reinforcement of behavior (“extinguish” by ignoring) or punish when target behavior occurs.
Develop a sense of safety and trust between teacher and student.
Make the class fun and interesting so there is a “pay off” for positive participation.
Provide support from another person; reduce frustration in the setting.
Teach alternative ways to communicate.
Teach how to tolerate school conditions.
Success
The behavior is eliminated and people in power view the situation as better.
The person’s problem is solved from his or her point of view.
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Teacher punishment & control
This works!! I express my anger, am less bored, express my hurt.
I am controlled, don’t understand, unstimulated so I . . .
. . . hurt myself or others, yell, cry, run around . . .
. . . feel angry, confused, bored, hurt and may . . .
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Help learning positive ways to get needs and desires met
Encouragement
Humiliation
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
School-wide and classroom based, intentional strategies
Information more than power
Build community & children’s resilience to PREVENT problems.
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Wesley would hit, scream, and curse defiantly (a 1st grader!)
The whole school staff was pulling for Wesley!
Goal - keep him in school
Paraprofessional support
Supported other children interacting with Wesley
Wesley re-entered the classroom and was doing better
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Survival
Love
Power
Fun
Freedom
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Balancing Information and Power in Relationships
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Philosophies at War in Practice
Respect
Curiosity
Request
Domination/coercion
Rewards/punishments
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Understand and communicate our ‘non-negotiables’
When we must use our power do so respectfully:
Use caring, respectful tone of voice
Provide a reason why something is non-negotiable
Be respectful - “I know this is important to you”
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Classroom meetings - teacher facilitates students in discussing the problem and creating solutions
Circle of friends - students provide support to a student who is having difficulty
Peer and conflict mediation - students are trained to help other students work through conflicts under teacher supervision
Peer support - students act as peer buddies and supporters
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Students go to classrooms of other teachers
Ask assistance from a specialist - psychologist, special education teacher, etc.
Create a safe place within the classroom where a student can go and cool down
This is NOT the same thing as ‘time out’ or sending students to the office
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Support groups for students - death in the family, drug abuse, pregnancy, etc.
Consultation - psychologist, social worker, special education teacher
Individual counseling
Group counseling
Professional & Community Supports
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Understand history of the family and child
Tell parents of challenges and ask opinion
Identify and build on strengths in the family (understanding all families have problems)
Communicate positive student attributes as well as problems
Be aware of family dynamics and potential for abuse
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Selected Proactive Approaches to
Social and Behavioral Challenges
Conscious Discipline - Becky Bailey (2001) Conscious Discipline. Love Guidance Press Circle of Courage - Larry Brendtro (2003) Reclaiming Youth at Risk. Solution Tree Press Collaborative Problem-Solving - Ross Greene (2008) Lost at School Setting Limits - Robert J. MacKenzie (2003) Setting Limits in the Classroom Cooperative Discipline - Linda Albert (1996) Cooperative Discipline
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Step 2. Develop a student-centered theory
Step 3. Develop and Implement the Plan
Step 4. Evaluate the Outcomes Together
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
1. ANXIETY shown by . . . Noncompliance Disruption Unusual actions
Orders - “Do this!” Limits - “You can’t do that” Consequences - “If you, I will” Label - “You’re a problem!”
Listen and reflect - “You seem upset” Curiosity - “What’s going on?” Support - “I’m here if you want to talk” Partner - “Let’s work together” Positive expectations - “It will work out”
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Counter-productive Responses
Helpful Responses
2. TRIGGER Action sets crisis in motion Questioning - “Why do I have to?” Refusal Emotional outburst
Demands - “Sit down!” Consequences - “You will get an F” Threaten - “Stop or I will call your mother”
Cool off - deep breaths, state feelings Agree to work it out - show willingness to solve problem; let person know you are there
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
3. CRISIS A serious crisis develops Intimidation Threat Violence
Anger - “Back off!!” Move in - move toward the student Retaliate - “Go to the office now!”
Give personal point of view: Give your point of view using I-statements. Solve the problem: Brainstorm win–win solutions.
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
4. RECOVERY Student settles down & feels Embarrassment Guilt Shame
Blame - “You always act this way” Instruction to retaliate - “I’ve told you . . . What is wrong with you?
Listen - “You look like you are sad” Normalize crisis - “All of us lose it sometimes” Personal disclosure - “I did something like this when I was your age once”
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
5. RESOLUTION Calm
Remind of crisis - “You were out of control” Avoid - not look at student Expect recurrence - “He’s going to go off again if they don’t get him out”
Collaborate - “How can we work together to help you?” Analyze: “What happened? What would have helped you?” Problem-solve: “What would be better next time you have these feelings?
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Challenging students and negative educators yelling and disrespectful
In-school suspension is chaotic
Suspension is simply a vacation
If we treated students with respect and tried to help them it could be different. It was in my old school!
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Positive behavioral support encouraged
Up to 10 days suspension is allowed; can remove a child who brings a dangerous weapon to school up to 45 days if substantially likely to result in injury
Services to support progress in the general education curriculum must be provided after 10 days.
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Requires that a Behavior Intervention Plan based on a Functional Assessment be developed if the behavior is related to the disability.
A ‘manifest determination’ meeting is held to determine if this is the case. If not, a student with a disability may receive the same response that other students do.
Behavior Challenges and IDEA…
Inclusive Teaching: The Journey Towards Effective Schools for All Learners, 2e Peterson / Hittie
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
*
Reclaiming Youth Network
rrtcpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/
cecp.air.org/

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