Click here to load reader

ABA: EVALUATION &TREATMENT OF CHALLENGING BEHAVIORS

  • View
    45

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

ABA: EVALUATION &TREATMENT OF CHALLENGING BEHAVIORS. October 11, 2013 Todd Kopelman , PhD, BCBA. What are “Challenging Behaviors?”. Interfere with:  Parent-child, sibling interactions  Student’s ability to learn, socialize & participate in classroom routines. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of ABA: EVALUATION &TREATMENT OF CHALLENGING BEHAVIORS

MR/DD and Psychiatric Illness

ABA: EVALUATION &TREATMENT OF CHALLENGING BEHAVIORS

October 11, 2013Todd Kopelman, PhD, BCBA

What are Challenging Behaviors?Interfere with:

Parent-child, sibling interactions Students ability to learn, socialize & participate in classroom routines. Teachers ability to instruct. Adults ability to obtain/maintain employment, stable housing, social relationships

Judge Potter obsenity trial I know it when I see itStart with some simple definitions first, what do I mean by the term challenging behaviors? Pretty general phrase and its one thats really defined by its consequences Challenging BehaviorsNoncompliance active (refusal), passive (off-task), or combinationAggressionTantrumsDestruction Self-injurious behavior

www.statesman.comMost common challenging behaviors at home and school. Note that not mutually exclusive. Active noncompliance can be arguing with teacher or with other students

Path to Negative Outcomes

Reduced learning opportunitiesAcademic difficulties, retention, suspension, drop-out, unemployment, substance abuse (Carr et al., 1991; Wehby et al., 1993 Lipsey & Derzon, 1998, CBHC.org)Teacher and parent burnout (Hastings & Bham, 2003)

http://world.edu/unhappy-teacher-bad-apple-tree/Challenging behaviors = aggression, property destruction/vandalism, noncompliance, bullyingTodd some type of a picture here? Perhaps of a path or of a burnt out teacher4ABA: What is it?

Not ABBA!So what are common approaches toward evaluating and treating challenging behaviors? Obviously, medication management can be very effective and is commonly used. Another approach that can be effective is called Applied Behavior Analysis or ABA. What is ABA?John Watson (Little Albert)

www.glogster.comIm going to spend a few minutes talking about ABA; John Watson 1913 psychologist as a behaviorist views it prediction and control of behavior through manipulation of environmental variables

Burrhus Frederick Skinner (1904-1990)

Interested in understanding behavior as a function of environmental histories of reinforcing consequences. Founding father of ABA is BF Skinner -

Applied Behavior AnalysisA systematic and experimental approach for evaluating the effects of changes in the environment on a persons behavior

Im going to spend a few minutes talking about ABAOne of the confusing things about ABA is that it is not a single standardized treatment program when some people think about ABA, they may think of Lovaas or discrete trial training however, field of ABA is much broader and includes a range of tactics, methods and procedures that have been shown to be effective for many different types of problems. Features common to all ABA-based approaches are the objective measurement of behavior, precise control of the environment and use of procedures based on scientifically established principles of behavior. Any clinical procedure or research investigation adhering to these basic criteria can be considered to be an ABA-based procedure. This includes "functional behavioral assessment," and approaches such as "Positive Behavioral Support," and forms of "Behavior Therapy" that rely on direct observation of behavior and analysis of behavior-environment relations.ABABehavioral principles often incorporated into other therapeutic approaches (CBT, ACT, VB, PCIT, etc)

1000s peer-reviewed studies using ABA procedures published across different ages, settings, diagnoses, behaviors

9Since the work of Skinner, ABA has expanded in several directions as far as basic research and clinical applicationsprediction and control of behavior through manipulation of environmental variablesOver the past 40 years a large body of literature has shown the successful use of ABA-based procedures to reduce problem behavior and increase appropriate skills for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), autism and related disorders. Thousands of peer reviewed articles over past 40+ years and sveral review articles and meta-analyses have been published summarizing this large body of literature. Each of these reviews supported efficacy of ABA-based procedures in the assessment and treatment of problem behavior associated with autism, mental retardation and related disorders

ABA: An Evidence-Based Treatment

Surgeon General Report American Academy of Neurology American Academy of Family Pediatrics American Academy of Occupational Therapy Association American Psychological Association American Speech-Language Hearing Association Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics Autism Society of America National Institute of Child Health & Human Development National Institute of Mental Health

Following organizations endorse ABA as an evidence-based approach for treating autism and related conditions10Core Components of ABA Applied (Socially significant)Environment-behavior relationshipsTechnological (detailed & clear procedures)Single subject design (Small Ns)Observable behaviors

The primary journal for ABA reseach is JABA. If opened it up and looked through a journal, you would quickly notice the following commonalities between the articles. One of the more striking thing is that most of the studies have small Ns, often between 1-5 participants. Why? More interesed in altering an individuals behavior than in seeing if an intervention will have an effect on a large group of individuals.Less concerned with persons diagnosis than with behaviors person displays, environmental conditions under which behavior most likely to occur, and how to arrage the environment to alter the behavior.What causes me to display a particular behavior may be very different from what causes you to display a behavior likewise, changes in the environment that lead to behavior change can be very different across individuals.Operant Conditioning is a type of learning in which a behavior is strengthened (meaning, it will occur more frequently) when it's followed by reinforcement, and weakened (will happen less frequently) when followed by punishment. Operant conditioning is based on a simple premise - that behavior is influenced by the consequences that follow. When you are reinforced for doing something, you're more likely to do it again. When you are punished for doing something, you are less likely to do it again Reinforcers may be positive or negative. A positive reinforcer reinforces when it is presented; a negative reinforcer reinforces when it is withdrawn. Negative reinforcement is not punishment. Reinforcers always strengthen behavior; that is what "reinforced" means. Punishment is used to suppress behavior. It consists of removing a positive reinforcer or presenting a negative one. It often seems to operate by conditioning negative reinforcers. The punished person henceforth acts in ways which reduce the threat of punishment and which are incompatible with, and hence take the place of, the behavior punished.

Do We Intervene?

www.simpsonscrazy.comDo We Intervene?

www.ocregister.comDo We Intervene?Autisminnb.blogspot.com

Core Components of ABA Applied (Socially significant)Environment-behavior relationshipsTechnological (detailed & clear procedures)Single subject designObservable behaviors

The primary journal for ABA reseach is JABA. If opened it up and looked through a journal, you would quickly notice the following commonalities between the articles. One of the more striking thing is that most of the studies have small Ns, often between 1-5 participants. Why? More interesed in altering an individuals behavior than in seeing if an intervention will have an effect on a large group of individuals.Less concerned with persons diagnosis than with behaviors person displays, environmental conditions under which behavior most likely to occur, and how to arrage the environment to alter the behavior.What causes me to display a particular behavior may be very different from what causes you to display a behavior likewise, changes in the environment that lead to behavior change can be very different across individuals.Operant Conditioning is a type of learning in which a behavior is strengthened (meaning, it will occur more frequently) when it's followed by reinforcement, and weakened (will happen less frequently) when followed by punishment. Operant conditioning is based on a simple premise - that behavior is influenced by the consequences that follow. When you are reinforced for doing something, you're more likely to do it again. When you are punished for doing something, you are less likely to do it again Reinforcers may be positive or negative. A positive reinforcer reinforces when it is presented; a negative reinforcer reinforces when it is withdrawn. Negative reinforcement is not punishment. Reinforcers always strengthen behavior; that is what "reinforced" means. Punishment is used to suppress behavior. It consists of removing a positive reinforcer or presenting a negative one. It often seems to operate by conditioning negative reinforcers. The punished person henceforth acts in ways which reduce the threat of punishment and which are incompatible with, and hence take the place of, the behavior punished.

FunctionFunction: the reason why problematic behavior continues to occur.

Social function: environmental events that maintain problematic behavior.Automatic function: internal events maintain problematic behavior

Treatment is based on identified function, not on topography.17Function provides us with information on why the problem behavior continues to occur.

We can say that problem behavior is maintained by a social function which indicates that there are environmental events that are maintain problem behavior. For example, a client hits himse

Search related