Chapter 18 Physical Development in Late Adulthood

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  • Chapter 18Physical Development in Late Adulthood

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Life Expectancy and Life SpanLife span - the upper boundary of life, the maximum number of years an individual can live.The maximum life span of human beings is approximately 120 years of age.Life expectancy - the number of years that will probably be lived by the average individual born in a particular year.The life expectancy of individuals born today in the U.S. Is 77 years.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Variations in Life SpanAustralia has the highest life expectancy today (80).Afghanistan and Kenya have very low ones (47years).

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Variations in Life SpanSuch differences are due to factors including health conditions and medical care.The percentage of older adults varies across countries as well16% of Swedens population is older than 65, 12% of the U.S. population, and only 3% in Kenya.In the U.S. a 7-year gap exists between life expectancy of Whites (77) and African Americans (70).

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • CentenariansIn 1980 there were only 15,000 centenarians in the U.S.; in 2000 there were 77,000.It is projected that this number will increase to 834,000 in 2050.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • CentenariansResearch reveals that many centenarians are quite healthy in their old age.Centenarians are a robust group, as many have had difficult lives.Such rapid growth in the older population will most likely lead to a variety of societal changes.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Sex Differences in LongevityToday, life expectancy for females is 80, males 74.Beginning at age 25, females outnumber males, and the gap continues to grow.By the time adults are 75 years of age, more than 61% of the population is female.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Sex Differences in LongevityThese differences are due to health attitudes, habits, lifestyles, and occupation.Biological factors play a role, too, as females outlive males in virtually all species.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • The Young Old, the Old Old, and the Oldest OldLate adulthood has the longest span of any period of human development50-60 years.Developmentalists thus distinguish between subperiods in this stage, although definite age boundaries are not yet agreed upon. The young old are 65-74 years of age.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • The Young Old, the Old Old, and the Oldest OldThe old old are 75 years and older.Some distinguish the oldest old as 85 years and older.Many experts prefer to make the distinction based on functioning, rather than age.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • The Oldest OldThe oldest old are much more likely to be female.They have a much higher rate of morbidity and a greater incidence of disability than the young old.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • The Oldest OldThey are much more likely to be living in institutions, less likely to be married, and more likely to have low educational attainment.A substantial portion function effectively, and the majority continue to live in the community.Forty percent say they have no activity limitation.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Biological Theories of AgingCellular Clock TheoryFree-Radical TheoryHormonal Stress Theory

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Cellular Clock TheoryLeonard Hayflicks view that cells can divide a maximum of about 75-80 times and that, as we age, our cells become increasingly less capable of dividing.Thus, Hayflick places the upper limit of the human life span at about 120 years.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Cellular Clock TheoryRecent research has shown that telomeres are DNA sequences that cap chromosomes, and that each time a cell divides, telomeres become shorter and shorter.Age-related telomere erosion has been found to be linked with an impaired ability to recover from stress and an increased rate of cancer formation.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Free-Radical TheoryStates that people age because inside their cells normal metabolism produces unstable oxygen molecules known as free radicals.These molecules ricochet around the cells, damaging DNA and other cellular structures.This damage can lead to a range of disorders, including cancer and arthritis.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Hormonal Stress TheoryAging in the bodys hormonal system may lower resilience to stress and increase likelihood of disease.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Hormonal Stress TheoryWith age, hormones stimulated by stress that flow through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system remain elevated longer than when we were younger.These prolonged, elevated levels of stress-related hormones are associated with increased risks for many diseases including heart disease and cancer.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • The Aging BrainRecent research has shown that adults continue to grow new brain cells throughout their lives.Even in late adulthood, the brain has remarkable repair capability.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • The Aging BrainGrowth of dendrites has been observed to continue through the 70s.Brain activity of older and younger people were compared; it was observed that older brains literally rewired themselves to compensate for losses.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Conclusions about Older BrainsIt appears that aging brains can shift responsibilities for a given task from one region to another.Neuroscientists believe the brain has a remarkable capacity to change and grow, even in old age.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Conclusions about Older BrainsStimulating the brain with mental exercises may cause neurons to increase their dendritic branching.These findings offer new possibilities for preventing and treating brain diseases such as Alzheimers and stroke.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Physical AppearanceThe changes that take place in middle adulthood become more pronounced in late adulthood.The changes are most noticeable in the form of facial wrinkles and age spots.We get shorter when we get older.Our weight usually drops after we are 60, most likely due to muscle loss, which causes us to look saggy.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Sensory DevelopmentVisionHearingSmell and TasteTouch and Pain

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • VisionAny decline in vision that began in early or middle adulthood becomes more pronounced.Night driving is particularly difficult.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • VisionDark adaptation is slower.Visual field becomes smaller.A recent study discovered that sensory acuity, especially in vision, was related to whether and how well elderly adults bathed and groomed themselves, completed chores, engaged in intellectual activities and watched TV.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Other Vision ProblemsCataractsGlaucomaMacular Degeneration

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • HearingHearing impairment may begin in middle age, but doesnt become an impediment until late adulthood.Seventy-five percent of individuals aged 75-79 experience some type of hearing problem.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • HearingFifteen percent of those over 65 is legally deaf.This hearing loss is usually due to the degeneration of the cochlea, the primary neural receptor for hearing in the inner ear.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Smell and TasteMost older adults lose some of their sense of smell, taste, or both.Smell and taste losses often begin around 60 years of age.Many older adults often prefer highly seasoned foods to compensate for their diminished senses.This may lead to eating more nonnutritious, highly seasoned junk food.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Touch and PainStudies have shown that with aging, individuals could detect touch less in the lower extremities than in the upper extremities.For most older adults, this decline is not a problem.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • Touch and PainOlder adults are less sensitive to pain and suffer from it less than younger adults.This can be harmful if it masks injury and illness that need to be treated.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • The Circulatory SystemWhen heart disease is absent, the amount of blood pumped through the heart is the same regardless of an adults age.Some experts argue that the healthy heart may even become stronger as we age through the adult years, with capacity increasing, not decreasing.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • The Circulatory SystemIllness, obesity, anxiety, stiffening of blood vessels, or lack of exercise may cause blood pressure to rise with age.High blood pressure should be treated.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • The Respiratory SystemLung capacity drops 40% between the ages of 20 and 80, even without disease.Lungs lose elasticity, the chest shrinks, and the diaphragm weakens.Diaphragm-strengthening exercises can improve lung functioning.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • SexualityIn a study of more than 1,200 elderly people, almost 30% had participated in sexual activity in the past month.In the absence of disease, sexuality can be lifelong, though aging does induce some changes.

    Black Hawk College Chapter 18

  • SexualityOrgasm becomes less frequent in males, and more direct stimulation is needed for erecti