Late adulthood 1

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Text of Late adulthood 1

  • 1. ERIKSONEgo Integrity vs. DespairEgo Integrity Despair Feel whole, complete, Feel many decisionssatisfied withwere wrong, but nowachievementstime is too short Serenity and Bitter and unacceptingcontentment of coming death Associated with Expressed as angerpsychosocial maturityand contempt forothers

2. --Ego differentiation versus work-rolepreoccupation--Body transcendence versus bodypreoccupation--Ego transcendence versus egopreoccupation 3. PERSONALITY Remains stable Some slight changes Agreeableness and acceptance ofchange increase slightly Extraversion decreases slightly 4. COPING/DEALING WITH STRESS Seniors have developed coping styles todeal with problems Seniors have social support, familialsupport, and friends which help toreduce stress High quality relationships have thegreatest impact on psychological health 5. COGNITIVE-APPRAISAL COPING MODEL(Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) States that people choose appropriatecoping strategies to deal with situationsthat tax their normal resources 2 types of coping strategies: problem-focused or emotion-focused 6. Problem focused coping: aims ateliminating, managing, or improving astressful situation This strategy is used when the personsees that they have a chance ofchanging the situation 7. Emotion focused coping: managing orregulating the emotional response to astressful situation Works to lessen the physical orpsychological impact of the stressor Utilized when a person realizes that littleor nothing can be done about asituation/stressor 8. SOCIAL INTERACTION Disengagement theory: socialinteractions decline because of mutualwithdrawal between elders and society Adults are anticipating death Not everyone disengages 9. ACTIVITY THEORY States that social barriers causedecreased engagement not the desireof elders Yet, offering adults opportunities forsocial contact does not guaranteegreater social activity 10. CONTINUITY THEORY (Atchley, 1989) People need to maintain a connectionbetween past and present activities Activity levels represents thecontinuation of a persons individuallifestyle; adults should remain active 11. Adults engage in the same sorts ofbehaviors they always have:MEN: engage in work, leisure activities,role of father, husbandWOMEN: engage in roles of mother,wife, worker, volunteer, and leisureactivities 12. SOCIOEMOTIONAL SELECTIVITY THEORY As we age we become more sociallyselective Adults tend to limit their contacts toindividuals with whom they havedeveloped pleasurable, rewarding,relationships 13. RELATIONSHIPS IN LATE ADULTHOOD Social Convoy: cluster of family membersand friends that provides safety andsupportMARITAL SATISFACTION Tends to rise in late adulthood Couples engage in joint leisure activities Less overall stress; no children to support 14. When divorce occurs, remarriage ratesare low Widowhood: wide variation inadaptation Maintain social ties, outgoing personality,high self esteem, and self efficacy inhandling daily living tasks fosteradjustment Women who have developedrelationships outside the marriage farebetter than men 15. FRIENDSHIPS/RELATIONSHIPS Social support from siblings increases;especially when they live nearby Siblings engage in joint reminiscing Friendships provide companionship,acceptance, and a link to the largercommunity 16. Women are more likely to have intimatefriends and secondary friends: peoplewith whom they spend time occasionally Adults and their adult children are oftenin touch They exchange advice and givemoderate support 17. Grandparent/grandchild contact tendsto decline over time, but grandparentaffection remains 18. RETIREMENT AND LEISURE Decision to retire depends onaffordability, health status, opportunitiesto pursue meaningful activities, andsocietal factors Women tend to retire earlier than menbecause of family events Those near poverty will continue to work 19. FACTORS THAT AFFECT ADJUSTMENT TORETIREMENT Health status financial stability Satisfaction derived from work Social support marital happiness 20. Family-focused lifestyle: low costactivities that revolve around the home,family, and friends Balanced investment: time is spentacross family, work, and leisure Serious leisure: lifestyle focused aroundpursuing an interest or hobby