Chapter 19An Age of Explorations and Isolations, 1400-1800
Chapter 19 Section 1- Europeans Explore the EastEuropean exploration was an important step toward the global interaction that exists today.The Renaissance spirit of adventure prompted Europeans to explore the world around them.
Why Explore?Grow rich and spread Christianity. God, Glory, and GoldThe desire for new sources of wealth was the main reason for European exploration.Traders looking to capitalize on the growing demand for spices/luxury goods from Asia. (nutmeg, ginger, cinnamon, and pepper)
Old vs. New Spice Trade
To Asia via the OceanFinding a direct sea route to Asia enabled Europeans to cut out the middle manTechnology makes sailing easier with the caravel. (ship better suited to sail against the wind)Portugal the first European country to establish trading outposts along Africa.
PortugalPortugal takes the lead in overseas exploration due to strong government support.Prince Henry promoted Portuguese exploration and earned the title The Navigator.
Prince Henry The Navigator
Impact of Prince HenryBy the time Henry died in 1460, the Portuguese had established a series of trading ports along western Africas shores.Traded profitable items such as gold and ivory. Whats next?
Other Portuguese ExplorersBartolomeu Dias reaches the Southeastern coast of Africa. (1488) Vasco da Gama reaches India in 1497.The cargo that da Gama brought back was worth 60 times the cost of the voyage. (pepper, cinnamon)
Maps of Dias and da Gama DiasDa Gama
Enter the SpanishThe Spanish joined the Portuguese in overseas exploration.1492 Christopher Columbus reaches an island in the Caribbean. Voyage would open the way for European colonization of the Americas
Tensions Immediate impact was the increase of tensions between Spain and Portugal. In 1494, Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas.
Chapter 19 Section 2Advances under Ming/Qing dynasties left China uninterested in European contact.China resisted interaction with outsiders to preserve their culture.China becomes dominate power under the Ming Dynasty. (1368-1644)
The Ming DynastyHongwu (1368-1398)Drove Mongols out of China.1st Ming EmperorReforms aimed at promoting Chinas power and prosperity. (agriculture)Had problems later in rule. (Suspected plots, killed thousands of governmental officials)
The Ming DynastyYonglo (Hongwus son) Continued Hongwus policies.Moved Royal Court to BeijingBefore the Europeans in 1405, Yonglo led 7 voyages to show the power of the Ming dynasty. (1488-Dias, 1498-Gama)
Voyages of Zheng He Chinese Muslim admiral that led the 7 voyages under Yonglo.Voyages involved as many as 300 ships and crews numbered 27,000 or more.The fleet sailed from port to port along the Indian Ocean.After the 7th voyage in 1433, China withdrew into isolation
Map of Zheng He
Fall of the Ming DynastyBy 1600, the Ming had ruled for more than 200 years, and the dynasty was weakening.Problems (ineffective rulers, corrupt officials, government out of money)In 1644, the Manchus invaded China and the Ming Dynasty collapsed.
Qing Dynasty They took a Chinese name for their dynasty, the Qing dynasty. Qing dynasty would rule for more than 260 years and expand Chinas border. The Qing upheld Chinas traditional Confucian beliefs and social structures.
Chinese IsolationTo the Chinese, their country had been the cultural center of the universe for 2,000 years.If foreign states wished to trade with China, they would have to follow Chinas rules.