CK 12 Chemistry Workbook

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CK-12 FOUNDATION

CK-12 Chemistry Workbook

Parsons

CK-12 Foundation is a non-prot organization with a mission to reduce the cost of textbook materials for the K-12 market both in the U.S. and worldwide. Using an open-content, webbased collaborative model termed the FlexBook, CK-12 intends to pioneer the generation and distribution of high-quality educational content that will serve both as core text as well as provide an adaptive environment for learning. Copyright 2010 CK-12 Foundation, www.ck12.org Except as otherwise noted, all CK-12 Content (including CK-12 Curriculum Material) is made available to Users in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution/NonCommercial/Share Alike 3.0 Unported (CC-by-NC-SA) License (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/), as amended and updated by Creative Commons from time to time (the CC License), which is incorporated herein by this reference. Specic details can be found at http://about.ck12.org/terms. Printed: July 27, 2010

AuthorRichard Parsons

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Contents

1 The Science of Chemistry Worksheets 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Lesson 1.1 The Scientic Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 1.2 Chemistry in History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 1 1 1 1 3 5 5 5 12 15 20 21 21 21 21 21 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Lesson 1.3 Chemistry is a Science of Materials Lesson 1.4 Matter Lesson 1.5 Energy

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2 Chemistry - A Physical Science Worksheets 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Lesson 2.1 Measurements in Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Lesson 2.2 Using Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exponential Notation Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 2.3 Using Mathematics in Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 2.4 Using Algebra in Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 Chemistry in the Laboratory Worksheets 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Lesson 3.1 Making Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Lesson 3.2 Making Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 3.3 Using Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 3.4 How Scientists Use Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 The Atomic Theory Worksheets 4.1 Lesson 4.1 Early Development of a Theory

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4.2 4.3

Lesson 4.2 Further Understanding of the Atom

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23 23 25 25 25 25 25 27 27 27 27 27 27 35

Lesson 4.3 Atomic Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5 The Bohr Model of the Atom Worksheets 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Lesson 5.1 The Wave Form of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Lesson 5.2 The Dual Nature of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 5.3 Light and the Atomic Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Lesson 5.4 The Bohr Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Quantum Mechanics Model of the Atom Worksheets 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Lesson 6.1 The Wave-Particle Duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Lesson 6.2 Schrodingers Wave Functions

Lesson 6.3 Heisenbergs Contribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 6.4 Quantum Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Lesson 6.5 Shapes of Atomic Orbitals

7 Electron Congurations for Atoms Worksheets 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Lesson 7.1 The Electron Spin Quantum Number Lesson 7.2 Pauli Exclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35 36 36 36 39 39 39 39 43 43 43 46

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Lesson 7.3 Aufbau Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 7.4 Writing Electron Congurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8 Electron Congurations and the Periodic Table Worksheets 8.1 8.2 8.3 Lesson 8.1 Electron Congurations of Main Group Elements . . . . . . . . . Lesson 8.2 Orbital Congurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Lesson 8.3 The Periodic Table and Electron Congurations

9 Relationships Between the Elements Worksheets 9.1 9.2 9.3 Lesson 9.1 Families on the Periodic Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Lesson 9.2 Electron Congurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 9.3 Lewis Electron Dot Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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9.4 9.5 9.6

Lesson 9.4 Chemical Family Members Have Similar Properties . . . . . . . . Lesson 9.5 Transition Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 9.6 Lanthanide and Actinide Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46 46 46 47 47 47 47 49 49 51 52 53 53 54 55 55 55 55 57 57 57 57 57 57 67

10 Trends on the Periodic Table Worksheets 10.1 Lesson 10.1 Atomic Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 Lesson 10.2 Ionization Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10.3 Lesson 10.3 Electron Ainity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Ions and the Compounds They Form Worksheets 11.1 Lesson 11.1 The Formation of Ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Lesson 11.2 Ionic Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3 Lesson 11.3 Properties of Ionic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12 Writing and Naming Ionic Formulas Worksheets 12.1 Lesson 12.1 Predicting Formulas of Ionic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Lesson 12.2 Inorganic Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Covalent Bonding Worksheets 13.1 Lesson 13.1 The Covalent Bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2 Lesson 13.2 Atoms that Form Covalent Bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.3 Lesson 13.3 Naming Covalent Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Molecular Architecture Worksheets 14.1 Lesson 14.1 Types of Bonds that Form Between Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2 Lesson 14.2 The Covalent Molecules of Family 2A-8A . . . . . . . . . . . .

14.3 Lesson 14.3 Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.4 Lesson 14.4 Electronic and Molecular Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5 Lesson 14.5 Molecular Polarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15 The Mathematics of Compounds Worksheets

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15.1 Lesson 15.1 Determining Formula and Molecular Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2 Lesson 15.2 The Mole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.3 Lesson 15.3 Percent Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.4 Lesson 15.4 Empirical and Molecular Formulas 16 Chemical Reactions Worksheets 16.1 Lesson 16.1 Chemical Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67 68 70 71 77 77 77 78 83 83 83 86 88 89 91 91 91 91 93 95 98 99 101

16.2 Lesson 16.2 Balancing Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3 Lesson 16.3 Types of Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Mathematics and Chemical Equations Worksheets 17.1 Lesson 17.1 The Mole Concept and Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.2 Lesson 17.2 Mass-Mass Calculations 17.3 Lesson 17.3 Limiting Reactant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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17.4 Lesson 17.4 Percent Yield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.5 Lesson 17.5 Energy Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18 The Kinetic Molecular Theory Worksheets 18.1 Lesson 18.1 The Three States of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.2 Lesson 18.2 Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18.3 Lesson 18.3 Gases and Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.4 Lesson 18.4 Gas Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.5 Lesson 18.5 Universal Gas Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.6 Lesson 18.6 Molar Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.7 Lesson 18.7 Stoichiometry Involving Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 The Liquid State Worksheets 19.1 Lesson 19.1 The Properties of Liquids 19.2 Lesson 19.2 Forces of Attraction

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19.3 Lesson 19.3 Vapor Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 19.4 Lesson 19.4 Boiling Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 www.ck12.org

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19.5 Lesson 19.5 Heat of Vaporization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 20 The Solid State Worksheets-HSC 103

20.1 Lesson 20.1 The Molecular Arrangement in Solids Controls Solid Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 20.2 Lesson 20.2 Melting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

20.3 Lesson 20.3 Types of Forces of Attraction for Solids 20.4 Lesson 20.4 Phase Diagrams

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21 The Solution Process Worksheets

21.1 Lesson 21.1 The Solution Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 21.2 Lesson 21.2 Why Solutions Occur 21.3 Lesson 21.3 Solutio