Cold War Tensions Rise Living on the Edge 1949-1960

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  • Slide 1
  • Cold War Tensions Rise Living on the Edge 1949-1960
  • Slide 2
  • Race for the H-Bomb Russia launches A-bomb (1949) Russia launches A-bomb (1949) US must up it one better US must up it one better H- Bomb (Thermonuclear) (1950) H- Bomb (Thermonuclear) (1950) 10.4 Million tons of TNT (A-bomb = 15,000 tons) 10.4 Million tons of TNT (A-bomb = 15,000 tons) Differences (Fusion versus Fission) Differences (Fusion versus Fission) Soviet Union explode thermonuclear device in 1953 Soviet Union explode thermonuclear device in 1953
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  • Brinkmanship Dwight D. Eisenhower Dwight D. Eisenhower President 1953-1961 President 1953-1961 Secretary of State John Foster Dulles Secretary of State John Foster Dulles Compromise with Communists immoral Compromise with Communists immoral Keep peace and contain Communism by going to the Brink of War Keep peace and contain Communism by going to the Brink of War Greater Dependence on Nuclear Weapons and Bombers Greater Dependence on Nuclear Weapons and Bombers Soviets answer with more of the same Soviets answer with more of the same Arms Race with Soviets Arms Race with Soviets
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  • CIA Central Intelligence Agency Created Central Intelligence Agency Created Covert activity to match KGB of Soviet Union Covert activity to match KGB of Soviet Union Spies sent to gather information on Soviet operations Spies sent to gather information on Soviet operations Secret Operations to overthrow governments unfriendly to U.S. Secret Operations to overthrow governments unfriendly to U.S.
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  • Iran 1951-1953 Prime Minister Mohammed Prime Minister MohammedMossadegh Opposed to British Imperialism Opposed to British Imperialism Nationalized Oil Industry Nationalized Oil Industry US fears of oil shortages to Post War Europe and Japan US fears of oil shortages to Post War Europe and Japan CIA covertly ousted Mohammed Mossadegh CIA covertly ousted Mohammed Mossadegh Fear Mossadegh was working with Coimmunist Tudeh Party Fear Mossadegh was working with Coimmunist Tudeh Party Replace with Shah Reza Pahlavi Replace with Shah Reza Pahlavi US Companies take over oil indusrty US Companies take over oil indusrty Iranian people suffer under repression of Shah and US economic policies Iranian people suffer under repression of Shah and US economic policies Iranian Revolution 1979 Ayatollah Khomeni comes to power (Nationalist, Anti Western Cleric) Iranian Revolution 1979 Ayatollah Khomeni comes to power (Nationalist, Anti Western Cleric) US seeks new Ally in Saddam Hussein in Iraq US seeks new Ally in Saddam Hussein in Iraq
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  • Guatemala - 1954 Jacobo Arbenz Guzman elected president Jacobo Arbenz Guzman elected president Nationalizes land owned by American Fruit Companies Nationalizes land owned by American Fruit Companies Gives land to Guatemalan Peasants Gives land to Guatemalan Peasants Suspected of being a Communist Suspected of being a Communist Really just want land back (Allen Dulles CIA chief and Stock holder United Fruit Company) Really just want land back (Allen Dulles CIA chief and Stock holder United Fruit Company) CIA Trained Army in Honduras against Arbenz CIA Trained Army in Honduras against Arbenz Dictator Carlos Castillo Armas take over country Dictator Carlos Castillo Armas take over country Returns land to US Fruit Company Returns land to US Fruit Company Eventually Armas and CIA form Death Squads Eventually Armas and CIA form Death Squads 100,000 die 100,000 die Peasants turn to drug trade because left on poor soil Peasants turn to drug trade because left on poor soil CIA uses drug money to help support dictators CIA uses drug money to help support dictators
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  • Khrushchev Nikita Khrushchev becomes new Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev becomes new Soviet Premier Denounces Stalins actions Denounces Stalins actions Eastern European Nations see as softening of Soviet Resolve Eastern European Nations see as softening of Soviet Resolve Khrushchevs position still unstable Khrushchevs position still unstable Must put down any potential threats to Soviet Sphere Must put down any potential threats to Soviet Sphere Must not appear weak against the West Must not appear weak against the West Eventually becomes more aggressive than Stalin Eventually becomes more aggressive than Stalin
  • Slide 9
  • Summit in Geneva - July 1955 Stalin Dies in 1953 Tensions ease Stalin Dies in 1953 Tensions ease Summit Between Soviets and Eisenhower Summit Between Soviets and Eisenhower First meeting since WWII First meeting since WWII Spirit of Geneva Spirit of Geneva Soviets recognize West Germany, Austria and Japan Soviets recognize West Germany, Austria and Japan Eisenhower calls for Open Skies Eisenhower calls for Open Skies Prevent surprise attacks by Nuclear Weapons Prevent surprise attacks by Nuclear Weapons NATO rearms Germany Destroys peace NATO rearms Germany Destroys peace Soviets form Warsaw Pact in reaction Soviets form Warsaw Pact in reaction Reject Open Skies Reject Open Skies Nothing Accomplished Nothing Accomplished
  • Slide 10
  • Israel Palestine partitioned in 1948 Palestine partitioned in 1948 United Nations Resolution United Nations Resolution Holocaust Survivors, Refugees Holocaust Survivors, Refugees US, Soviets approve US, Soviets approve No one asks Palestinians No one asks Palestinians US sees Israel as ally in Middle East US sees Israel as ally in Middle East Bulwark against Communism Bulwark against Communism US Military Aid used to expand territory and fight against Arab neighbors (Egypt) US Military Aid used to expand territory and fight against Arab neighbors (Egypt) $3.1 Billion annually including Nuclear Arsenal $3.1 Billion annually including Nuclear Arsenal
  • Slide 11
  • Egypt and Aswan Dam Gamal Abdel Nasser Gamal Abdel Nasser Nationalized Suez Canal (British and French) Nationalized Suez Canal (British and French) Closed to traffic Tolls to build Dam Closed to traffic Tolls to build Dam Israel, France, Britain threaten war Israel, France, Britain threaten war Invade Egypt (UN and US denounce) Invade Egypt (UN and US denounce) Nasser asks US for aid -Denied Nasser asks US for aid -Denied Turn to Soviets Turn to Soviets Soviets Threaten to use missiles vs UK troops Soviets Threaten to use missiles vs UK troops US counters US counters UN resolution UN resolution Egypt reopens canal 1957 Egypt reopens canal 1957 US and Soviets both secretly give Nasser aid US and Soviets both secretly give Nasser aid Nasser become hero Pan Arabism (Anti-Israel, Anti West) Nasser become hero Pan Arabism (Anti-Israel, Anti West) Unites oppostion Unites oppostion
  • Slide 12
  • Hungarian Revolt - Oct. 1956 Khrushchev seen as less menacing than Stalin Khrushchev seen as less menacing than Stalin Eastern European countries demand more independence from Soviet control Eastern European countries demand more independence from Soviet control Demand free elections, liberties Demand free elections, liberties Imre Nagy Reformer elected Imre Nagy Reformer elected Soviet Army leaves Hungary Soviet Army leaves Hungary Hungarian Revolt Hungarian Revolt Hungarians threaten to leave Warsaw Pact Hungarians threaten to leave Warsaw Pact Soviets roll in tanks (30,000 killed) Soviets roll in tanks (30,000 killed) US sends aid only US sends aid only Eisenhower now seen as all bark no bite (Failure of Brinkmanship all or nothing Egypt, Hungary) Eisenhower now seen as all bark no bite (Failure of Brinkmanship all or nothing Egypt, Hungary)
  • Slide 13
  • Eisenhower Doctrine Soviet prestige raised among Arab world due to aid to Nasser Soviet prestige raised among Arab world due to aid to Nasser Middle East becomes Cold War Theater Middle East becomes Cold War Theater US vs USSR (Israel, Iran vs Syria, Egypt, Palestine) US vs USSR (Israel, Iran vs Syria, Egypt, Palestine) Both sides dump Billions of $ in Military Aid into region Both sides dump Billions of $ in Military Aid into region Competition in Third World (Hearts and Minds) Competition in Third World (Hearts and Minds) Eisenhower vows to defend Middle East against Communist Threat (Containment) Eisenhower vows to defend Middle East against Communist Threat (Containment) Leads to support of dictators (Shah) and ends peace in region (New Era of Imperialism) Leads to support of dictators (Shah) and ends peace in region (New Era of Imperialism)
  • Slide 14
  • Science and Technology Cold War strategies turn to new innovations to win the war Cold War strategies turn to new innovations to win the war Cheaper than conventional Cheaper than conventionalmilitaries Eisenhower Republican Eisenhower Republican (Reduce Taxes) Scientific Development Budgets soar on both sides Scientific Development Budgets soar on both sides Military Industrial Complex US (52% vs. 26% WWII) Military Industrial Complex US (52% vs. 26% WWII) Destroys Soviet Economy Destroys Soviet Economy Bomber, Missile Gaps and the Space Race Bomber, Missile Gaps and the Space Race Competition to build the best means to destroy the other side Competition to build the best means to destroy the other side B-52s, Multiple Warheads, ICBMs, Titan Subs B-52s, Multiple Warheads, ICBMs, Titan Subs
  • Slide 15
  • Sputnik Oct 1957 Soviets launch first man-made satellite into space Soviets launch first man-made satellite into space Fear US was falling behind Soviets Fear US was falling behind Soviets Technology Gap Technology Gap US schools beef up science and math US schools beef up science and math programs programs Soviets could now laun