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    CONVEYING SYSTEMS

    DIVISION 14

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    •is a small freight elevator (or lift)intended to carry objects rather than

    people. Dumbwaiters found withinmodern structures, including bothcommercial, public and privatebuildings, are often connectedbetween multiple floors. Wheninstalled in restaurants, schools,kindergartens, hospitals, retirementhomes or in private homes, the liftsgenerally terminate in a kitchen.

    DUMBWAITERS

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    14100 DUMBWAITERS

    A simple dumbwaiter is amovable frame in a shaft,dropped by a rope on a pulley,

    guided by rails; mostdumbwaiters have a shaft, cart,and capacity smaller than thoseof passenger elevators, usually45 to 450 kg (100 to1000 lbs.) Before electricmotors were added in the 1920s,dumbwaiters were controlledmanually by ropes on pulleys.

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    TYPES OF DUMBWAITERS

    FLOOR TYPE

    Floor type dumbwaiter isinstalled on the same horizontallevel with the floor of thepassage way to facilitatecarriage of goods normallycarried on handcarts. This typeof dumbwaiter is normallyfound in hotels, or corridorareas. Normally used to carrylarge goods such as tables.

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    Window type

    Window type dumbwaiter is

    installed at the height of a man'swaist, so that users canconveniently use the dumbwaiter.This type is commonly found inlibraries, offices, restaurants,kitchens, and other places. It isnormally used to carry books,documents, kitchen utensils, foodand beverages, and other goods.

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    Large type

    This type of dumbwaiter has alarge cab with an external

    manual gate and it is similar toa normal freight elevator, butthere are no buttons inside thecar. Some large dumbwaitersmay have an interior light.Passengers are usually notallowed to enter or ride it forsafety reason. Button panel islocated on the outside, oftenhas a digital floor indicator.

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    14200 ELEVATORS

     The elevator (or lift in theCommonwealth excluding Canada)is a type of vertical transport

    equipment that efficiently movespeople or goods between floors(levels,decks) of a building,vessel or other structure.Elevators are generally poweredby electric motors that eitherdrive traction cables orcounterweight systems like ahoist, or A set of lifts in thelower level of a LondonUnderground station.

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    TYPES OF ELEVATORS

     Passenger elevator - Elevatorare the main transportationarteries in the modern buildingand are vital in determining abuilding's economic success. Alltypes of passenger lifts ofdifferent capacity and speed.

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    Good elevators - Goods

    Elevators are used in differentindustries for lifting heavygoods and items. These goodselevators are precision designedto have excellent liftingcapacity & maintenance lessworking mechanism.

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    Panoramic elevators -

    panoramic elevators ,panoramic lift are designedbasically for malls and othercommercials buildings. It has anoverlook over other elevators.Visible on one side and to stepaside on the floors of your willon the other side.

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    Capsule elevators - Capsule

    Elevators act as Architecturalhighlights on prestigiousbuildings. They can be calledthe ornaments of a building asthey enhance its beauty andbring life into it. Its design,features and infinite optionsadd its optimum travel comfort.

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    Automobile elevators - A carelevator is installed where rampsare considered space-inconservative. Car elevators areusually used in parking the vehiclesat different floors, automobileshow rooms, automobile servicecenters etc. The car elevatorusually has got the entrance onopposite sides so that the car canenter from one end and leave fromthe opposite end.

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    Strecher elevator- Strecherelevator also cater to the healthsector by providing specializedrange of Stretcher Elevators suitedfor application in hospitals, healthcenters and other similar places. AStretcher Elevator provides highlystable and smooth operation as itutilizes inverter control technologyand lowest noise mechanism.

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     Glass elevators - Glass elevators

    from skylark combine speed,efficiency, simplicity and easymaintenance at competitive prices.these elevators are intended foruse in residential apartments,hotels, banks and similarapplications, where the ease of useby individuals is important.

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    Hydraulic elevators - Hydraulicdrive systems have a motor-pump unit which suppliespressurized fluid via flexiblehoses to a hydraulic cylinder.The cylinder provides theelevator car with motionindirectly. An electric motordrives the pump. Control of thesystem is by electro-hydraulicvalves; ascent is driven underpressure and descent undergravity using the weight of theelevator car.

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     Hydraulic elevators - Hydraulic

    drive systems have a motor-pump unit which suppliespressurized fluid via flexiblehoses to a hydraulic cylinder.The cylinder provides theelevator car with motionindirectly

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    TYPES OF HOIST MECHANISMS

    Traction elevators- Geared traction mControlling elevators Space to stand in, guardrails,seating cushion (luxury) Overload sensor — prevents the elevator from moving until excessload has been removed. It may trigger a voice prompt or buzzer alarm. This may also trigger a"full car" indicator, indicating the car's inability to accept more passengers until some are

    unloaded.

    achines are driven by AC or DC electric motors. Geared machines use worm gears to controlmechanical movement of elevator cars by "rolling" steel hoist ropes over a drive sheave which isattached to a gearbox driven by a high speed motor.

    Controlling elevators Space to stand in, guardrails, seating cushion (luxury) Overloadsensor — prevents the elevator from moving until excess load has been removed. It may trigger avoice prompt or buzzer alarm. This may also trigger a "full car" indicator, indicating the car'sinability to accept more passengers until some are unloaded.

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    ESCALATORS AND MOVING WALKS

    A moving staircase consisting ofan endlessly circulating belt ofsteps driven by a motor,conveying people between thefloors of a public building.

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    ESCALATOR

    Design and layout consideration Escalators, like moving walkways, are often powered by

    constant-speed alternating current motors and move at approximately 1–2 feet (0.3–0.6 m) persecond. The typical angle of inclination of an escalator to the horizontal floor level is 30degrees with a standard rise up to about 60 feet (18 m). Modern escalators have single-piecealuminum or stainless steel steps that move on a system of tracks in a continuous loop. Anumber of factors affect escalator design, including physical requirements, location, trafficpatterns, safety considerations, and aesthetic preferences. Foremost, physical factors like thevertical and horizontal distance to be spanned must be considered.

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    COMPONENTS OF ESCALATORS

    Landing platform: These two platforms house the curved sections of the tracks, as well as the gears and motors thatdrive the stairs. The top platform contains the motor assembly and the main drive gear, while the bottom holds thestep return idler sprockets.

    Floor plate: It provides a place for the passengers to stand before they step onto the moving stairs. This plate is flushwith the finished floor and is either hinged or removable to allow easy access to the machinery below.

    Truss: The truss is a hollow metal structure that bridges the lower and upper landings. It is composed of two sidesections joined together with cross braces across the bottom and just below the top. The ends of the truss are attachedto the top and bottom landing platforms via steel or concrete supports. The truss carries all the straight track.

     Steps: The steps themselves are solid, one piece, die-cast aluminum or steel. The steps are linked by a continuousmetal chain that forms a closed loop. The front and back edges of the steps are each connected to two wheels. Therear wheels are set further apart to fit into the back track and the front wheels have shorter axles to fit into thenarrower front track.

    Handrail: The handrail provides a convenient handhold for passengers while they are riding the escalator. In anescalator, the handrail is pulled along its track by a chain that is connected to the main drive gear by a series of pulleys

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    Deck board: These are used for preventing clothing from getting caught and other such problems.

    Balustrade: The side of an escalator extending above the Steps, which includes Skirt Guard, Interior Panel, DeckBoard and Moving Handrails.

    Tracks: The track system is built into the truss to guide the step chain, which continuously pulls the steps fromthe bottom platform and back to the top in an endless loop.

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    WORKING OF ESCALATORS

    The escalator machinery is hidden beneath its steps in what is known as the truss and at the top of the escalator,housed in the truss, is an electric motor which runs the four gears that all escalators have two drive gears oneither side at the top and two return gears on either side at the bottom and the gears have chains that looparound the gears and run down each side of the escalator then they are connected to each step, these chainshelp the steps make their way up, or down, the escalator where the handrails that riders use for balance andsafety on their ride up or down escalators are powered by the same system that powers the steps and finally atthe handrails are essentially long rubber loops connected to the two drive gears at the top of the escalator andpowered by the same electric motor that powers the steps.

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    TYPES OF ESCALATORS

    Parallel: These type of escalator go upand down simultaneously. 1 Speed:

    0.5m/s 2 Inclination: 30, 35 3 Stepwidth: 800 / 1000 4 Power: 50 Hz / 3p 5Handrails: Rubber /Stainless steel 6Step: stainless steel 7 Landing plate:anti skid stainless steel. 8 Operation:Emergency stop button/ Key switch /Inspection operation. 9 Illumination:lighting under upper and lower landingsteps. 10 Indicator: Failure indicator oncontrol cabinet.

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    Multi parallel:

    1 Speed: 0.5m/s 2 Inclinations: 30,35 3 Step widths: 800 / 1000 4

    Power: 50 Hz / 3p 5 Handrails:Rubber /Stainless steel 6 Step:stainless steel 7 Landing plate: antiskid stainless steel 8 Operation:Emergency stop button/ Key switch/ Inspection operation. 9Illumination: lighting under upperand lower landing steps. 10Indicator: Failure indicator oncontrol cabinet

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    Spiral type escalators: These are

    used to enhance the architecturalbeauty and to save the space. 1Inclined Angle : 30" 2 Rated Speed[m/sec] : 25 3 Number of Persons :6300 per hour 4 Rated Speed(mtrs./sec.) :25 m/ min. 5 VerticalRise ( m ) : 3500 ~ 6600

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    Criss-cross: They stacks the escalatorsthat go in single direction and reduces

    structural space requirement. 1 Stepwidth: 600 / 800 / 1000 2 Power: 300V/ 50 Hz / 3p 3 Handrails: Rubber/Stainless steel. 4 Step: stainless steel.5 Landing plate: anti skid stainless steel.6 Operation: Emergency stop button /Key switch / Inspection operation. 7Illumination: lighting under upper andlower landing steps. 8 Indicator: Failureindicator on control cabinet.

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    ADVANTAGES OF ESCALATORS

    It helps a large no. of people in moving from one place to another at the same time and they reduce the need ofelevator because people would not have to wait for elevator and escalator can carry a large no. of people at thesame time. It is helpful for the people that have pain in their legs and joints i.e it provide comfort to the peopleEscalators are effective when used as a mean of guidance and circulation. Their speed can be adjustied which ishelpful in managing the crowd. When turned off they can be used a staircase.

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    DISADVANTAGES OF ESCALATORS

    Waste of energy when not in use. Possible njuries when stopped suddenly Source of fearfor small children

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    MOVING WALKS

    A moving walkway or movingsidewalk (American English), known in

    British English asa travelator or travolator is a slowmoving conveyor mechanism thattransports people across a horizontal orinclined plane over a short to mediumdistance. Moving walkways can be usedby standing or walking on them. Theyare often installed in pairs, one foreach direction.

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    Moving walkways are built in one of two basic styles:

    Pallet type — a continuous series of flat metal plates join together to form a walkway - and are effectivelyidentical to escalators in their construction. Most have a metal surface, though some models have a rubbersurface for extra traction.

    Moving belt — these are generally built with mesh metal belts or rubber walking surfaces over metal rollers. Thewalking surface may have a solid feel or a "bouncy" feel.

    Both types of moving walkway have a grooved surface to mesh with combplates at the ends. Also, nearly allmoving walkways are built with moving handrails similar to those on escalators.

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    HOIST AND CRANES

    A hoist is a device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or lift-wheel around which rope orchain wraps. It may be manually operated, electrically orpneumatically driven and may use chain, fiber orwire rope as its lifting medium. The load is attached to the hoist by means of a lifting hook.