CRITICAL FACTORS INFLUENCING PATERNAL INVOLVEMENT ?· CRITICAL FACTORS INFLUENCING PATERNAL INVOLVEMENT:…

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  • Paternal Involvement i

    CRITICAL FACTORS INFLUENCING PATERNAL INVOLVEMENT:

    FATHERS EXPERIENCES OF NEGOTIATING ROLE RESPONSIBILITIES

    by

    MARVIN M. BRAVO

    A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE

    REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS

    in

    THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES

    GRADUATE COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY PROGRAM

    We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard

    ..

    Janelle Kwee, Psy.D., Thesis Supervisor

    ..

    Marvin McDonald, Ph.D., Second Reader

    ..

    Marvin McDonald, Ph.D., Thesis Coordinator

    ..

    Richard Young, Ph.D., External Examiner

    TRINITY WESTERN UNIVERSITY

    September 23, 2013

    Marvin Bravo and Janelle Kwee

  • Paternal Involvement ii

    Abstract

    This qualitative study uses the Critical Incident Technique (CIT) to explore incidents

    fathers report to be helpful or hindering to their parental engagement. CIT was chosen as

    the primary methodology so as to allow fathers themselves to be the voice behind what

    they deem important factors in fostering the father/child relationship. Eight fathers were

    interviewed for this study. All together 206 incidents were pulled from the interviews. Of

    the 206, 132 incidents were identified by participants as helpful (HE) in promoting

    efficacy in their role as fathers. Forty seven incidents were identified as hindering (HI)

    and another 27 as wish list (WL) items. These 206 incidents were further broken into 10

    helping, six hindering, and four wish list categories. Participants also provided a list of

    29 recommendations for paternal engagement. All HE, HI, and WL incidents were

    assigned to one of the following categories, some of which were dichotomized by HE/HI

    poles: (a) positive and negative role models, (b) Mother/Father relationship (d) Fathers

    Religion/Spirituality (e) Responsibility (f) Attachment (g) Personal Decision (h)

    Characteristics of Children (I) Reflective parenting (j) Societal Influence (k) Fathers

    Characteristics, and (l) Extended Family Influence. Research findings indicate that

    fathers identify major themes of responsibility, engagement, and father/mother dyad as

    important factors in determining their involvement with their child. However, in as much

    as these were noted as important factors within the father/child relationship, fathers

    consistently reported them to be the platform from which one should understand the

    larger context of paternal involvement. The study further highlights the interconnectivity

    of these and other identified categories and sheds light on the challenges that are inherent

    to dads as they navigate the myriad roles they find themselves in.

  • Paternal Involvement iii

    Table of Contents

    LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................... vi

    LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................ vii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................. viii

    Dedication .......................................................................................................................... x

    Chapter 1: Introduction ................................................................................................... 1

    Rationale .....................................................................................................................................3 Research Question .................................................................................................................................5

    Key Concepts ..............................................................................................................................5 Paternal Involvement. ............................................................................................................................5 Responsibility. .......................................................................................................................................6 Attachment. ............................................................................................................................................6

    Chapter 2: Literature Review .......................................................................................... 8

    Father, Fatherhood, and Fathering ..........................................................................................8 Influences of Fatherhood on Fathering. .................................................................................................9 Primacy of Motherhood Approach. ...................................................................................................... 13 Fathering Roles. ................................................................................................................................... 16

    Attachment Theory, Ecological Theory, and Father Involvement ......................................17

    Narrative and Fathering ..........................................................................................................23 Contemporary Roles of Fatherhood. .................................................................................................... 25

    Focus and Rationale for This Study .......................................................................................26

    Chapter 3: Method .......................................................................................................... 28

    Methods of Inquiry ..................................................................................................................28 The Critical Incident Technique. .......................................................................................................... 28 Critical Incident Technique and Paternal Involvement. ....................................................................... 29 Rationale for Enhanced Critical Incident Approach. ........................................................................... 29

    Recruitment Strategy ...............................................................................................................30

    Participants ...............................................................................................................................31

    Materials and Procedure .........................................................................................................33 Paternal Involvement Semi-structured Interview Protocol (PISIP). .................................................... 33 Contextual Component. ....................................................................................................................... 33 Critical Incident Component. ............................................................................................................... 34 Recommendation. ................................................................................................................................ 34

    Procedure ..................................................................................................................................35 Data Analysis. ...................................................................................................................................... 36 Reliability ............................................................................................................................................. 37 Validity. ............................................................................................................................................... 39

    Ethical Considerations .............................................................................................................40

    Chapter 4: Results .......................................................................................................... 42

    Summary of Categories ...........................................................................................................43

    Helping Categories ...................................................................................................................45

  • Paternal Involvement iv

    Positive and Negative Role Models (PNRM). ..................................................................................... 46 Mother/Father Relationship (MFR). .................................................................................................... 48 Responsibility. ..................................................................................................................................... 50 Attachment. .......................................................................................................................................... 51 Fathers Religion/Spirituality (FRS). ................................................................................................... 53 Characteristic of Children (CoC). ........................................................................................................ 55 Personal Decision (PD). ....................................................................................................................... 56 Reflective Parenting (RP). ................................................................................................................... 58 Extended Family Influence (EFI)......................................................................................................... 59 Societal Influence (SI). ........................................................................................................................ 59

    Hindering Categories ...............................................................................................................61 Responsibility (R-hin). ......................................................................................................................... 61 Father Characteristics (FC-hin). ........................................................................................................... 63 Mother/Father Relationship (MFR-hin). .............................................................................................. 65 Characteristics of Children (CoC-hin). ................................................................................................ 66 Attachment (A-hin). ............................................................................................................................. 68 Fathers Religion/Spirituality (FRS-hin). .............................................................................................. 69

    Wish List Items .........................................................................................................................70 Responsibility. ..................................................................................................................................... 71 Father Characteristic (FC-wl). ............................................................................................................. 72 Extended Family Influence (EFI-wl). .................................................................................................. 74 Father Religion/Spirituality (FRS-wl). ................................................................................................. 74

    Recommendations ....................................................................................................................75 Attachment (A-r). ................................................................................................................................. 77 Father Characteristics (FC-r). .............................................................................................................. 78 Additional Recommendations. ............................................................................................................. 80

    Summary of Recommendations ..............................................................................................80

    Summary of Results .................................................................................................................81

    Chapter 5 Discussion ...................................................................................................... 83

    Summary of Research Problem ..............................................................................................83

    Key Findings .............................................................................................................................84 Responsibility and Commitment. ......................................................................................................... 85 Attachment. .......................................................................................................................................... 89 Mother-Father Dyadic Differences (HE/HIN). .................................................................................... 92 Fatherhood Harmony / Ecological System. .......................................................................................... 94 Positive and Negative Role Models (PNRM). ..................................................................................... 95 Extended Family Influence. ................................................................................................................. 96 Societal Influence. ................................................................................................................................ 97 Ecology and Harmony ......................................................................................................................... 98

    Strengths and Limitations .......................................................................................................99

    Clinical and Social Programming Implications ...................................................................100

    Theoretical implications ........................................................................................................103

    Future Research .....................................................................................................................104

    Conclusions .............................................................................................................................106

    References ...................................................................................................................... 108

    Appendix A .................................................................................................................... 114

  • Paternal Involvement v

    Participant Recruitment Poster ............................................................................................114

    Appendix B .................................................................................................................... 115

    Participant Consent Form .................................................................

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