Universal Journal of Educational Research 4(9): 2174-2180, 2016 http://www.hrpub.org DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2016.040929
Digital Literacy and New Technological Perspectives
Elvia Ilaria Feola
Department of Philosophical Social Sciences of Education and Training, University of Salerno, Italy
Copyright 2016 by authors, all rights reserved. Authors agree that this article remains permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License.
Abstract This paper aims to reflect on the implications and challenges that experts in the field have to deal with when you want to evaluate the performance in the use of digital technologies in teaching. The argument stems from a contextual and social assessment, and then proceeds to an application and methodological connotation of digital literacy activities. The work is driven by a heuristic and multidisciplinary view of the topic, highlighting not only the technical and computer skills of the learner, but especially critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, research; bringing out a three-dimensional vision technology; cognitive/metacognitive; ethical/social, then, a complex combination of skills, abilities and knowledge. It was created an experiment in the university context, with the goal of creating a digital learning environment in which new technologies are used in order to create new content, new ways of teaching and learning, approaching the teaching experience to that of life daily and vice versa. He conducted a study/quantity in order to check whether the student, working on the use of new technologies, emerge some of its dimensions of digital literacy, and in what mode of action and reflection, surfacing that size.
Keywords Digital Literacy, Media Education, Search
1. IntroductionToday's society demands more and more numerous and
varied skills, which must be used not only in order to strengthen individual capacity to use the information for personal empowerment and social, but also to address the potential risks associated with the mass media and the digital media. In this perspective comes the digital and media literacy to make responsible choices and access tracking information and sharing materials and understanding information and ideas; analyze messages in a variety of formats by identifying the author, purpose, point of view and assessing the quality and credibility of the content; creating content in a variety of formats for authentic purposes, making use of language, images, sounds, and new digital and technological tools; reflect on their own behavior and their
communicative behaviors by considering social responsibility and ethical principles; and, finally, to undertake social action working individually or collaboratively to share knowledge and solve problems in the family, at work, in the community, and participating as a member of the community.
In recent decades, the role played by formal education agencies was not only questioned, supplanted, at least in part, by educational agencies non - formal and informal . This is because they are activated and requests forms of learning very different. The learning that is generated by the use of the media, as opposed to the traditional one, makes use of multiple intelligences and multisensory , able to engage and motivate the subject. In addition, the supremacy of the rational dimension of learning, based on logical reasoning, has been questioned in favor of the affective dimension/creative/body. The media carry out an epistemological and methodological pluralism capable of redefining education, resulting in new cultural forms, teaching approaches no longer focused on a vertical relationship (one-many), but horizontal and based on the connectionist paradigm and a new vision of the world.
It called into question the very concept of education, since they are not only more requests the classic skills of reading, writing and functional abilities, but other forms of literacy (audiovisual, television, digital, cine-literacy, etc.). The new form of literacy challenge the former based on a written culture and setting text-based teaching, redefining new structured communication codes according to the various social, economic and historical contexts in which they are produced, distributed and used. In addition, it aspires to develop critical understanding and active participation of the subjects. It follows that the change will have to be focused on the critical analysis and creative production. However, the crux remains the intellectual capacity to select and process the information, and therefore, technologies should be seen as "philosophical devices" capable of shaping the living environment of the individual, transforming the space-time organization of life, affect social action and cultural universes and the ways in which individuals relate to reality, to others and to themselves.
New technologies blazing new editing capabilities of communication processes in order to make them much more
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differentiated and complex, but the same time, more effective and motivating. Specifically, the new media offer endless possibilities for action on the content, as it allows us to change, transform, process, compare and interpret in a personal way the contents themselves. In addition, they present themselves as instruments capable of implementing the receiving, processing and mediation of learning content. It is therefore necessary that young people exploit this potential offered by technology and become active builders and protagonists of the future social, cultural, economic and political society. However, to achieve these skills is essential to back up the subject through the solicitation of new ways of thinking and interpreting the world. You must therefore create creative learning spaces and plan exciting activities and multiple; create a teaching related to the problems of daily life, which generate adequate tools to teach reading and media to design and implement media education paths.
Because until now exposed reinforces the need for future teachers to possess the basic skills in order to contribute to the achievement of broader digital competence.
This research work aims to develop a training methodology aimed at developing digital skills in future teachers.
2. Theoretical Framework Despite the concept and purpose of digital literacy they
are in vogue for over thirty years, only in recent years have become fully operational in the educational reflection. However, the integration of new media and technology in education is still poor, despite the mass media help to spread the concept and the importance of digital literacy. The goal is to realize what has been prepared by art. 37 of the Directive of the European audiovisual media services , which not only takes into account the active role of organizations such as UNESCO and the European Commission (EC) for the development of media literacy, but it has the recognition and identifies media education in political agenda .
The focus should be placed on the personal and social structures devoted to the construction and organization of knowledge. Educational research, therefore, aims to provide realistic working hypotheses and models congruent with the goals posed by educational institutions ; this in order to generate a more informed reflection on why and how to use digital media in education.
The first author to propose a definition of digital literacy is Gilster , which emphasizes that it is crucial to acquire especially the capacity for critical thinking and evaluation of information, rather than technical skills. In this vision it binds to Erstad  which proposes a definition of digital literacy as a set of skills, knowledge and attitudes in the use of media to handle the challenges of the learning society. This definition takes a broad view of its own because it binds to the challenges of what is called the learning society, meaning a look on the most active companies,
process-oriented, different then by words such as the network society, the knowledge and information .
Digital literacy can be defined as the ability to use technological applications and the ability to make use of these technologies for personal and collective occurrences. However, above all this latter aspect it has given rise to very important issues concerning the dissemination of new technologies among populations. Many people, in fact, can not avail itself of the technology as it does not own them, and this precludes them from actively participate in the knowledge society and to its development.
Internationally also we need a responsible use of technology has prompted the European Commission to issue in December 2006 a Recommendation on key competences for lifelong learning and require a paradigm shift compared to the traditional education system . The goal is to ensure everyone full citizenship in the information society, developing young people's ability to learn to learn, critical to be autonomous, develop and/or potential for their skills and design interventions in their life context and work. This objective, however, is accessible only if you become more familiar with new technologies and commit critically, so as to allow the subject to retrieve, assess, store, produce, communicate, participate, present and exchange information through collaborative networks.
Effective performance and a socially recognized action is determined by the internal resources (knowledge, understanding, skills, operational schemes, motivations, values and interests, etc.) and external (technologies, organization of work, institutions) of the subject.
The European Union, in a research report defines media literacy as the skills and expertise needed to promote development, self- aware and in the new communicative environment - digital, global and media - information society. This definition, in addition to the advantage of maintaining a firm distinction between the result (literacy) and the process (education), also allows you to encompass the steps that have taken place on the evolutionary plane than the issue of the specific skills, specific to each class of languages. This suggests that the subject is not called only to acquire new knowledge, but to learn to learn. Such a process can only be if teachers and educators prepare, orient, they differentiate and organize, knowingly and flexibly, the teaching/learning activities required by the media world and are capable of designing media education paths.
For the author Buckingham  media education is a teaching-learning process aimed not only literacy of media languages but also and above all, to support the development of important critical skills for an active use of the media. The ability to produce and reuse forms of communication and media tools in a creative way, becomes the most important strategy in order to promote digital skills of young people. The media education promotes educational-teaching methodology is based on the use of cognitive processes of both metacognitive processes employed by the media and global communication and is configured as a new horizon epistemological and methodological able to focus the main
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dynamics of construction of social meaning, therefore not acting as a defensive strategy, but as a project aimed at the development of a conscious and productive communication consumption .
Rivoltella  notes that the "old" teaching practices, built on the read and write just textual footsteps, must change to new prospects capable of changing the different languages in "cognitive keyboards", available and accessible to all learners.
3. Research The research emphasizes the critical understanding of the
media, while the other has strengthened the focus on the productive/creative dimension, it prompted precisely by the development of digital media. The first action taken to carry out the research was to design and develop a training methodology aimed to develop in people, technology skills, cognitive and ethical. Later he tried to consolidate the training methodology helped by the participation of university students. The recipients, in fact, were 162 students attending the course of Laboratory of General Education and Educational Technology of the degree course in Primary Education Sciences of the University of Salerno. The course was delivered in e-learning, making use of the open source platform.
The employed research plan was to "almost experimental one-group", which involves the use of the same group both as a control group, both as experimental group.
The aim of the research is to increase significantly in the experimental group digital skills. Specifically it aims to improve the ability to select relevant information for solving a problem; the ability to "surf" the knowledge; the ability to read and understand the texts; the ethical competence in being able to take responsibility for the consequences in the activity medial.
The assessment tools used were of four types: the Instant DCA  (Digital Competence Assessment) for the detection of digital research participant skills; R-I-Z-A model  to evaluate the acquisition of digital skills; assessment rubrics and self-evaluation of activities declined from any profile of competence and checks administered during the course.
The Instant DCA is a questionnaire easy to apply and verify that analyzes the three dimensions: technological, cognitive and ethical. The items related to the technological dimension mainly to the "ability to identify and solve" the difficulties that arise working with the media and the ability to read and interpret typical interfaces. The cognitive dimension measures the ability to understand the texts and data organization, analysis and critical evaluation of the relevance and reliability of information. The ethical dimension relates to cross-cutting aspects such as the protection of personal data, respect of netiquette and awareness of the social implications of the use of technologies.
For the application of the model R-I-Z-A they were built of outgoing competence profiles, following the directions stated in Trinchero .
The R-I-Z-A model is structured in accordance with: (R) resources: understood as the knowledge and basic skills of the student; (I) interpretation: as the student defines situations; (Z) action: as the student acts in response to a problem; (A) self-regulation: as the student based on the experiences change their strategies according to the stresses from the environment.
According to Trinchero  the four components of competence emerge only when the subject is facing problems. At the end of a...