Digital Transformation: A Framework for ICT Literacy (PDF)

  • Published on
    16-Dec-2016

  • View
    214

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

  • Copyright 2007 by Educational Testing Service. ETS and the ETS logo are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service (ETS). ISKILLS and LISTENING. LEARNING. LEADING. are trademarks of ETS. 7094

    Digital Transformation

    A Framework for ICT Literacy

    A Report of the International ICT Literacy Panel

    The ICT Literacy Assessment is now called the iSkills assessment. All references to the ICT Literacy Assessment in the following document apply to the iSkills assessment.

  • Digital TransformationA Framework for ICT Literacy

    A Report of the InternationalICT Literacy Panel

    34328-010796 CL42M10 Printed in U.S.A.

    I.N. 993861

  • INTERNATIONAL ICT LITERACY PANEL

    Panel Members

    Barbara OConnor (Chair), California State UniversitySacramento, CaliforniaPaul Anderson, Communications Workers of America (retired)Washington, DCMarjorie Bynum, Information Technology Association of AmericaArlington, VirginiaPatrick Gaston, VerizonWashington, DCMaria Helena Guimaraes de Castro, National Institute for Educational Studies and ResearchBrasilia, BrazilJoyce Malyn-Smith, Education Development CenterNewton, MassachusettsBarry McGaw, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentParis, FranceRichard Methia, National Coalition for Technology in Education and TrainingFairfax Station, VirginiaLeslie Ann Taylor, DyncorpReston, Virginia

    Participating Organizations

    Vivian Guilfoy, Education Development CenterNewton, MassachusettsScott Murray, Statistics CanadaOttawa, Ontario, CanadaEugene Owen, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of EducationWashington, DC

    Educational Testing Service (ETS) Staff and Project Counsel

    Irwin Kirsch, Center for Global Assessment, ETSPrinceton, New JerseyMarylou Lennon, ETS (retired)Princeton, New JerseyEllen Mandinach, Center for Higher Education, ETSPrinceton, New JerseyPamela Smith, National Assessment for Educational Progress, ETSPrinceton, New JerseyBrenda Kempster, The Kempster GroupPalm Desert, CaliforniaJohn Schweizer, Pacific Bell (retired)Paris, France

  • Digital TransformationA Framework for ICT Literacy

    A Report of the InternationalICT Literacy Panel

  • iii

    Digital Transformation

    I. PREFACE

    In January 2001, Educational Testing Service(ETS) convened an international panel to study thegrowing importance of existing and emergingInformation and Communication Technologies(ICT) and their relationship to literacy. The panelwas made up of experts from education, govern-ment, non-governmental organizations (NGOs),labor, and the private sector. Representatives fromAustralia, Brazil, Canada, France, and the UnitedStates were included in the group. The InternationalICT Literacy Panel and its subcommittees met fivetimes during the year. In order to maintain a globalperspective, two of the meetings took place outsideof the United States in Paris and Rio de Janeiro.Presentations by and discussions with local expertsintroduced the panel to issues unique to thesecountries and regions. Following each meeting,panel members consulted key clients, constituentsand stakeholders for their input.

    The panel deliberations had two major themes.First, ETS, along with the panel members, wantedto examine the need for a measure of ICT literacyacross countries as well as within specific organiza-tions, such as schools and businesses. ETSs interestin this topic is an extension of its long-standinginvolvement in large-scale assessment, beginning

    with its management of the development andconduct of the National Assessment of EducationalProgress (NAEP) since the early 1980s throughnumerous studies of adult literacy including thefirst International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS).As a second goal, ETS and the panel wanted todevelop a workable Framework for ICT Literacy.This framework would provide a foundation forthe design of instruments including large-scaleassessments intended to inform public policyand diagnostic measures to test an individualsskills associated with information and communica-tion technology.

    Given the enormous and growing importance oftechnology in peoples everyday lives, the panel setout both to frame what we already know about ICTliteracy and to define what we dont know. Thepanel also advances a set of policy recommendationsdirected to governments, educators, NGOs, laborand industry regarding ICT literacy. It is the panelshope that this process will lead to assessments andresearch that will ultimately inform efforts to betterunderstand and address real issues surrounding ICTliteracy in its role in contributing to the develop-ment of human capital.

  • v

    Digital Transformation

    II. TABLE OF CONTENTS

    I. Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

    II. Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

    III. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    IV. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    A. Defining ICT Literacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    B. The Role of an ICT Literacy Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    C. Technology as a Transformative Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    D. Summary of Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    V. A New Notion of a Digital Divide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

    A. The Importance of Cognitive Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    B. The Need for ICT Literacy Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    C. The Case for Education Investment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    D. ICT Literacy Initiatives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

    VI. Policy Recommendations and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    A. Recommendation 1: Large-scale assessments and

    public policy research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    B. Recommendation 2: Diagnostic Assessments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    C. Recommendation 3: An Integrated IT Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    VII. The ICT Literacy Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

    A. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

    B. Developing a Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

    C. Defining ICT Literacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    D. Organizing the Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    E. Next Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    Appendix A Sample Assessment Task- ICT Proficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    Appendix B Sample Assessment Task - ICT Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

    Appendix C Sample Assessment Task - Diagnostic Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

    Appendix D Panel Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

  • 1

    Digital Transformation

    III. OVERVIEW

    Over the course of its deliberations, the Inter-national ICT Literacy Panel had wide rangingdiscussions about the nature of information andcommunication technologies literacy and its grow-ing importance in the well being of societies aroundthe world. A diverse group representing a variety ofconstituencies, the panel was able to reach consensuson a series of key issues in these areas. Some of thoseare highlighted here.

    Technology is of increasing importance inpeoples everyday lives and that presence willmost certainly increase in the coming years.No longer relegated to specialized workplacesettings, information and communicationtechnologies have become increasingly com-mon in community settings, at school, andat home. Whether looking up a book on acomputerized card catalogue at the publiclibrary, making a withdrawal from an auto-mated teller machine, or accessing telephonemessages, everyday activities have been trans-formed by ICT. As a result, the notion of aliterate populace must be expanded to includethe technology-based skills and abilities thatwill enable citizens to function in an increas-ingly technological world.

    ICT literacy cannot be defined primarily asthe mastery of technical skills. The panelconcludes that the concept of ICT literacyshould be broadened to include both criticalcognitive skills as well as the application oftechnical skills and knowledge. These cognitiveskills include general literacy, such as readingand numeracy, as well as critical thinking andproblem solving. Without such skills, thepanel believes that true ICT literacy cannotbe attained.

    The panel views ICT literacy as a continuumof skills and abilities. Just as we no longerthink of general literacy as an either/or propo-sition in which an individual is either literateor not, ICT literacy ranges from simple uses of

    technology in everyday life to uses in perform-ing complex tasks.

    The panel reflects a growing consensus thatmeaningful data from large-scale globalassessments, and from smaller diagnostic testsaimed to inform governments, schools, andprivate sector organizations and consortiums,will be crucial in understanding the breadthand gaps in ICT literacy across the world. Suchcomparable information is not available today.Furthermore, we believe that these data will beimportant in analyzing the outcomes andeffectiveness of current public policies, educa-tion strategies, philanthropic investments, andcommunity initiatives, as well as in identifyingpotentially new and more effective strategies.

    The panel strongly believes that it is time toexpand the notion of the digital divide. Thecurrent global public policy focus is on thedetrimental impact of limited access to hard-ware, software and networks such as theInternet. We believe this characterization ofthe digital divide must be changed to includethe impact of limited reading, numeracy, andproblem-solving skills. Without these skills, allthe hardware and access in the world will notenable people to become ICT literate. Acontinued focus on building infrastructureshould be complimented by an effort toidentify those without an ability to manage,integrate, evaluate, and create information in atraditional sense and to provide them with thenecessary tools to acquire these critical skills.The panel recognizes and commends thesuccessful partnerships of private sector andpublic sector in advancing the deployment ofthe infrastructure. However, it also believesthat a single-focused strategy is insufficient andcould, in fact, perpetuate a society of haves andhave-nots, thus widening the digital divide,severely deteriorating the ability of employersto find skilled and capable workers, andlimiting the benefits of technology applicationsand tools to help people meet fundamentalneeds, such as quality health care, public safety,and good jobs.

  • 2

    Digital Transformation

    IV. INTRODUCTION

    Numerous research studies, associations, andindustry groups have examined issues relating toInformation Communication Technology (ICT)1

    skills as they affect workforce readiness (see forexample Bollier, 2000). Research has examined theglobal assessment of ICT skills for students insecondary schools (Venezky, 2001). Other work hasdetailed the necessary skill sets required for theinformation technology (IT) worker, as well as theskills gap in available workers to meet the workforceneeds. These efforts produced models and compe-tencies necessary to meet ICT education andworkforce requirements.

    The Information Technology Association ofAmerica (ITAA) issued two comprehensive studiesthat explain how information technology haschanged the workforce and identified key jobcategories, requisite skills, and ways for workers toacquire the skills (ITAA, 2000, 2001). EducationDevelopment Center in collaboration with ITAA,also issued another report that presents a pathway/pipeline model for integrating technology skills intocurricula (EDC, 2000). The Computer Scienceand Telecommunications Board of the NationalResearch Council proposed a framework for fluencywith information technology (Committee onInformation Technology Literacy, 1999). Mostrecently the American Society for Training andDevelopment and the National Governors Associa-tion released a report on e-learning and theworkforce (Commission on Technology and AdultLearning, 2001).

    These efforts provide a solid foundation toexamine skills and knowledge levels for the 21st

    century workforce, as well as for education and

    life-long learning. They also provide the basis to linkthe skill sets to specific curriculum and testingstandards, or to tie directly with certification testsfor specific ICT job requirements.

    However, these studies have only begun toaddress the requirements for individuals to functionsuccessfully in a global ICT society on and off thejob, and the assessment criteria necessary to evaluateif individuals have the core competencies to func-tion successfully in an information age society.

    Organizations such as Statistics Canada, theNational Center for Educational Statistics (NCES)in the United States, and the Organisation forEconomic Co-operation and Development (OECD)in Paris have expressed a desire to include these skillsalong with literacy and numeracy in their interna-tional assessments of students and adults. TheOECD is planning to include ICT literacy in thedomains for assessment in 2006 in the Programmefor International Student Assessment (PISA) if asuitable assessment framework and appropriate testscan be developed. To date, however, no one has putforth a framework to assess if an individual hasachieved ICT competency to function successfullyin a knowledge-based society. It was the task of thispanel to begin the process of meeting that goal.

    A. Defining ICT Literacy

    Reflecting the growing importance and ubiquityof new technologies in work, education, andeveryday life, the panel defines ICT...