Fellmann11e ch8

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  • 1. Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis

2. Human Geography Chapter 8 Livelihood & Economy:Primary Activities Insert figure C08 Medioimages/Getty RF 3. Economic Geography

  • The study of how people earn their living
    • How livelihood systems vary by area
    • How economic activities are spatially interrelated and linked

Human Geography 11 e 4. The Classification of Economic Activities & Economies

  • Categories of Activity
    • Primary
    • Secondary
    • Tertiary
    • Quaternary
    • Quinary

Human Geography 11 e Insert figure 8.2 5. Classification of Economies

  • Types of Economic Systems
    • Subsistence
      • Goods and services are created for the use of the producers and their kinship groups
      • Little exchange of goods and only limited need for markets
    • Commercial
      • Dominant in nearly all parts of the world
      • Producers or their agents, in theory freely market their goods and services
    • Planned
      • Government agencies controlled both supply and price
      • Locational patterns of production were tightly programmed by central planning departments

Human Geography 11 e 6. Agriculture Human Geography 11 e Insert figure 8.7 7. Subsistence Agriculture

  • Extensive Subsistence
  • Intensive Subsistence
  • Urban Subsistence
  • Expanding Crop Production
  • Intensification and the Green Revolution

Human Geography 11 e 8. Commercial Agriculture

  • Production Controls
  • A Model of Agricultural Location
  • Intensive Commercial Agriculture
  • Extensive Commercial Agriculture
  • Special Crops
  • Agriculture in Planned Economies

Human Geography 11 e 9. Commercial Agriculture

  • Farmers produce not for their own subsistence but primarily for a market off the farm itself

Human Geography 11 e Insert figure 8.19 Corbis RF 10. Johann Heinrich von Thunen

  • Early in the 19th century he observed that lands of apparently identical physical properties were used for different agricultural purposes
  • Around each major urban market, he noted a set of concentric rings of different farm products
  • The ring closest to the market specialized in perishable commodities that were both expensive to ship and in high demand

Human Geography 11 e 11. Johann Heinrich von ThunenHuman Geography 11 e Insert figure 8.14 12. Resource Exploitation

  • What Counts as a Resource?
  • Resource Terminology
  • Fishing
  • Forestry
  • Fur Trapping and Trade
  • Mining and Quarrying

Human Geography 11 e 13. Development of Primary Activities Human Geography 11 e

  • Depends on:
  • The occurrence of the perceived resources
  • The technology to exploit them
  • Cultural awareness of their value
  • Fishing and forestry are gathering activities based on harvesting the natural bounty of renewable resources
  • Fishing and Forestry
  • - Heavily exploited renewable resources
  • Part of both subsistence and advanced economies
  • Their maximum sustainable yield is actually potentially being exceeded in some places

14. Mining Human Geography 11 e

  • Involves the exploitation of minerals unevenly distributed in amounts and concentrations determined by past geologic events, not by contemporary market demand
  • Transportation costs play a major role in determining where low-value minerals will be mined

15. Trade in Primary Products

  • Changing Pattern of Trade in Commodities and Manufactured Goods
  • Volatility of Commodity Prices
  • Price Fixing and Technological Change
  • Agricultural Subsidies and Access to Markets

Human Geography 11 e