GOMBRICH ON THE GOMBRICH ON THE RENAISSANCE Volume 2: Symbolic Images E.H.Gombrich . CONTENTS Preface

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  • GOMBRICH ON THE

    RENAISSANCE Volume 2: Symbolic Images

    E.H.Gombrich

  • CONTENTS

    Preface

    Introduction: Aims and Limits of Iconology The Elusiveness of Meaning-Iconography and Iconology-The Theory of Decorum-The Dictionary Fallacy-Philosophies of Symbolism- Levels of Meaning?-The Psycho-analytic Approach--Codes and AUusions-The Genres Appendix: Annibale Caro's Programme for Taddeo Zuccaro 23

    Tobias and the Angel

    Botticelli's Mythologies : A Study in the Neo-Platonic Symbolism of his Circle 31

    A Postscript as a Preface 31 Introduction 36 The 'Primavera' 37

    Past Interpretations-The Historical Aperoach: Fidno's Letter to Botti- celli's Patron-Apuleius' Description of Venus-Misreadings of the Text?-Description and Symbolism in Apuleius-The Graces and the Problem of Exegesis-The Typological Approach

    The Platonic Academy and Botticelli's Art 64 Ficino and Botticelli's Patron-Mars and Venus-Pallas and the Centaur-The Birth of Venus-The Villa Lemmi Frescoes-Ficino and Art

    Appendix: Three unpublished letters by Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medid 79

    An Interpretation of Mantegna's 'Parnassus'

    Raphael's Stanza delIa Segnatura and the Nature of its Symbolism 85

    Hypnerotomachiana Bramante and the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili 102 The Belvedere Garden as a Grove of Venus 104 Giulio Romano and Sebastian0 del Piombo 108

    The Sala dei Venti in the Palazzo del Te

    The Subject of Poussin's Orion

  • Zcones Symbolicae: Philosophies of Symbolism and their Bearing on Art 123

    Introduction 123 I. The Personification of Ideas 126 11. The Didactic Tradition 130

    The Society of Concepts-The Attributes-Description and Definition in Medieval Art-Ripa and the Aristotelian Tradition

    111. Neo-Platonism: Giarda and his Antecedents 145 The Platonic Universe--The Christian Interpretation-Dionysius the Areopagite-The Two Ways-Analogical Symbolism-The Mystical Image

    IV. The Confluence of Traditions 160 The Philosophy of the Impresa-The Function of Metaphor-The Paradox and the Transcendence of Language t

    V. Meaning and Magic 170 The Symbol's Power-Effect and Authenticity-Apparitions and Por- tents-Art and Belief

    VI. The Heritage 180 From Giarda to Galileo--The Age of Reason-Allegory versus Symbol -The Revival of Neo-Platonism from Creuzer to Jung

    Appendix: Introduction to Christophoro Giarda, Biblwthecae Alexandrinae Icmes Symbolicae 192

    Notes

    Bibliographical Note

    List of Illustrations

    Index

    Illustrations

  • 240 Index Camilli, Camillo, 162-3, fig. 162, fig. 161 Esoteric tradition, 39, 54,

    161 Cupid,& 108,133,207,210, 115, 149-50, 173, 186, Cardinal virtues, 87, figs. 75, see also Eros I95

    8oa, b Cusanus, Nicolaus, 170,208 Este, Isabella d', 36, 82-3 Caro, Annibale, PII, 13, Cyrus, 8 Estienne, Henry, 162

    23-25 Europe, 127-8 Casio, Girolamo, 16, 197 Dante, 15, 26, 28, 94, 152, Evangelists, 85, 157-8 Cassone painting, 32, 62, 68 154,160,204 Exegesis, 13-15, 27, 55, Castello, Villa di, 33, 44, 62, Decorum, 7-9, 18, 20, IOO 5 ~ 5 1 , 8 7 , 149f.

    78,793 205 Definition, 13, 134f., 14zf., 'Expression', artistic, 77, 78, Castiglione, B., 165 181 96,124,174,217 Catullus, 53 Delacroix, Eugkne, Liberty -facial, 38, 39, 96, 202-4 Cellini, Benvenuto, his leading the people, 126, Ezekiel, 152, 158

    Saliera, 18, fig. 21 fig. I37 Charity, see Benevolence, Demons, 107, 127f., 177f., Farnese, Cardinal, 9

    Eros 209,221 Farnese, Ranuccio, 227 Charles V, Emperor, 10,118 Dempsey, Charles, 32,34 Faust, Goethe's, 17of., 231, Charles VIII of France, 40, Despair, 143 232

    65,212 de Superville, Humbert, 187 FMibien, A., 120 Chaste], A., 31 Device, see Impresa Ferrara, I 16 Chaucer, G., 67 Diagrams, 35,135,167 Ferruolo, A. B., 31 Chest of Kypselos, 131 Dialectic, see Discursive Festina lente, 168, fig. 164 Chivalry, 42,62 speech Ficino, Marsilio, 31f., 36, Cibb, Cardinal, 118 'Dictionary fallacy', 11-15, 41-46. 53-62, 64-7, cicero, 8, 21, 33, 92-3, 134, 39,59f.; see also impresa, 70-2, 75-8, 158-60,

    138, 166-7,20~,~06,z~o Pleninide 16810, 172-4, 179, Classical models, imitation Diogenes, 10 205-6, 212, 214-15,

    of, 63, 67, 72, 106, 108, Dionysius the Areopagite, 2 3 ~ - I 119 15-2, 157,168,188 'Fiction', 125,128

    Classicism, 182, 187 Discursive speech, 129, 147, Fiera, Battista, 175 Claudianus, 201 156, 158, 165, 168, 170, Filarete, F., 3 ~ 4 0 , 4 8 Codes, 12, 18f. 180, 190, 210 Firmicus Maternus, ~og-15 Coleridge, S. T., 125 Dryden, J., 174 Fischel, O., 97 Collalto, Pompilio, his im- Diirer, Alhrecht, 67, 76 Florentine engravings, figs.

    presa, 163-5, fig. 163 26, I43 Collective unconscious, I90 Effects of images, 29, 34, 60, Foerster, R., 82 Colonna, Francesco, 102, 172f.> I94 Fra Angelica, 63

    104-8 Egidio da Viterbo, 103 Fra Bartolomeo, 98, fig. 88 Comes, Natalis, 12-22 Egyptians, Ancienr, I&, 147, Francastel, P,, 31 Compagnia di Raffaello, 30 14~50,158-9, 176,185, Franciabigio, 220, fig. 104 Convention, 13, 59, 96, 188 Francisco da Holanda, 106,

    123-124, 152, 159, 178, Ehphrasis, 53, 68, 119 fig. 109 184,226,228 Ekstasis, 157, 169, 177 Freud, Sigmund, 17,189-90,

    Correggio, 32 Emblem, 28, 101, 128, 233 Council of Trent, 154-5 158-160, 167. 188; see Fulgentius, 54 Courtly imagery, 44, 62 also Attributes Furor, 62, 157,169,207,231, Cousin, 163, fig. 162 Enlightenment, 123, 184f. 233 Creuzer, F., 187-8 Epideicric oratory, 96, 100, Croce, B , 129,228 '45 Galilei, Galileo, 180-1 Croesus, 8 Eros, statue of, 1-3, 18. 107, Gauricus, Lucas, 116--18, Crotta family, their impresa, figs. I, 3 224-5

  • 7 Index 241 Gebhart, E., 202 Hypneroromachia PoIiphili, Madonna with che Yarn- Genres of art, sfi., 17,21,32 see Colonna, F., figs. Winder, 15, fig. 19 Genrile da Fabriano, 48 102,112,164 Virgin and Child with Sr. Ghirlandajo, 48, 65, 75, 179, Anne, 1&17,29, fig. 20

    figs. 32,61 Iamblichus, 66, 173 Lewis, C. S., 131, m1 Giarda, Christophoro, 123, Icarus, I, 7, fig. 7 Liberal Arts, 75, 77, 86-7,

    126, 145-6, 148-50, Iconoclasts, 151 89-95, 123, 145. 19% 153-4, 163. 177, 180, Iconography, 5 figs. 133-6 192-5,2267,231-4 Iconology, I-22,32 Liberty, 126

    Giehlow, K., 102-3,230 Ideas, platonic, 88, 123-4, Licetus, F., 146 Gilbert, Albert, 1-37 '47-8, 154, 156-7, 173, Lippi, Filippino, 99, fig. 93 Giovanni da Bologna, 2, fig. 2 177,182,193,233 Lippi, Filippo, 48,63, fig. 31 Gladstone, W. E., I-4,1z Imagination, 96, 158, 1856 Lomazzo, Giampaolo, Trrrt- Gnostics, 148 Zmpresa, 20, 109, 142, 160-5, rato delPArre della Pit- Goethe, 3. W., 113, 170-2, 167, figs. 15-3 tura, 7-8, 137-8, 176

    188, 231,232 Incarnation, 91,148 Louis XI1 of France, his Gonzagafamily, 94,108,109, 'Insight symbol', 210,230 motto, 161, fig. 159

    118,207,225 Intuition, intellectual, 147, ~ucian, 53, 68, 119-20 Gozzoli, Benozzo, 63, figs, 156,158f., 160,162,169, Lucilia, 61

    41,42 172,177,181,187f. Lucretius, 52-3,67,107,127, Graces, 8, 31, 47-8, 55-60, 213

    75, r32 Jacobsen, E , 202 Luini, Bernardino, 8, fig. 10 Graevius, G., 123, 192-5 Julius 11, pope, 87,94,102-5 Lnther, Martin, 178, fig. I66 Greekvase-painting, 131,k. Jung, C. G., 190

    142 Jurisprudence, 89,93f. Macrobius, 116-17, 138 Gregory IX, Pope, 89,94 Justice, 89, 125,175-6 Magic, 60, 170-4, 179; see 'Grotesque decoration', 20, Jnstinian, 89 also Effects

    fig. 22 Mile, E., 7, 138, 199 Gyraldus, Lilius, 105 Kant, I., 184 Mandowsky, E., 139

    Klein, R., 161 , . Manilius, 109-16,223 Hadrian VI, Pope, 107 Koblhausen, H., 44 Mantegna, 50, 105, 175 Hartr, F., 31,222 Kraus, Karl, 130 Parnassus, 82-4, fig. 62 Haslinger, T., 188, fig. 170 Kris, E., 202 Mantua, 82-4, 1-18 Hazlitt, W., 122 Maratta, 85 Heckscher, W. S., 31 Laban, F., 202 Marrai, B., 37 Heemskerck, M., 103, fig. Landino, Christoforo, 57, Mars, 67f., 82f., 108, 126f.,

    10s 206 132 Hegel, 188 Landscape painting, 71, 122, Macston, John, 120 Heraclides Ponticus, 82. 129-30 Mamllo, M,, 66, 208 Hermes Trismegistus, 149 Lanfranco, 154-5, fig. 155 Manr, Karl, I25 Hieroglyphics, 20-1, 35, 66, Language, 2, 3, 12, 54, 95, Mamranzio, 87

    101-4, 145, 150, 158-9, 125, 129-30. 166-8, Maulbertsch, A. F., 123, fig. 162, 184-5,188,195 190-1 132

    Hirsch, D. E., 4-5,17131,32 Laocoon, 108, 187, 222, fig. Medals, 56,66,figs. 36,433, Holcot, Robert, 136, 139-40 169 56,60,66 Horace, 125. I44 Leo X, Pope, 105-7 Medici, Cosimo de', 30, 217 Horapollo, 159 Leonardo da Vinci, 76, 179 - Cosimo I, 19 Horne, H. P., 37,65,73,197 Adoration of the Magi, 98, - Giuliano, 38, 45, 69, 200, Hugh of St. Victor, 210 figs. 9% 92 201 Huizinga, J., 60,200, 210 Allegory of Pleasure and Medici, Lorenzo, 31, 40, 65, Humanitas, 33,42-5, 205 Pain, 137-8,167,fig. 149 79-80,212

  • 242 Index - Lorenzo di Piedrancesco, Plato, Plotinus Pico della Mirandola, Gio-

    33-4, 4-1, 43-5, 57, Neri di Bicci, 26 vanni, 56, 58, 105, 64-6, 75-6, 7 ~ 8 1 , 212, 'New Iconography', 1389 152-153, 179, 211,216 figs. 43-5 Nicolb da Bologna, illumina- - Giovanni Francesco,

    - Piero, 214-15 tion by, fig. 75 105-107, 176-7, 221 Melk, monastery of, 155, fig. NooeNa super Libros Decreta- Pictographs, 12,96, 123, 151

    156 lium, fig. 75 Piero di Cosimo, 116, 214, Mesnil, J., 37, 75,201 Novellara, Fra Pietro da, 16 fig. 51 Metaphor, 13-14. 20, 27, Pigler, A., 7

    10% 125, 130, 141, 143% Obelisk, 103-4, figs. 103-5 Pinturicchio, Borgia Apart- 161-3, 165-8, 182, Occasio, 133f. ments, 87,92,94-5,103, 184-185,191 'Open sign', 18, 159, 182 figs. 76-8, 83