IB History Origins of Cold War

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)


These were my previous notes on the Origins of Cold War. They might've been typed up in shorthand so if there's a need for further clarification, please email me at nuramira1993@hotmail.com . Thank you and hope it helps!

Text of IB History Origins of Cold War

Cold War

Origins of the Cold War (1945-49)A. Early Hostilities during WWII (tension between US and USSR) i. Different ideologies/civil war Communism Govt, spreading wealth Not allowed Censored, govt-run radios and tv Only communist party Govt is involved in every aspect of life Capitalism Private, making as much $$ as they want Allowed Personal freedom Different parties People have freedom in life to compete, succeed

Business Religion Media Elections Social life

Conflicting ideologies started competing for followers 1918-21 : Civil War ravaged Russia o Lenin doesnt have control over USSR o Allied power (BR and US) not happy o GE turned to western front to fight o Allied powers felt betrayed by communist Russians Tried to get rid of comm right after ww1 Ever since comm began, allied powers did not like comm. distrust

ii. Shifting Alliances/appeasement/league of nations Stalin allies with Hitler o US and Western EU did not trust him then RU doesnt trust west o Because of relations of allied powers with H RU felt west had prejudice towards Communist Soviet o Blocked them from joining LON Thus, no faith in alliances iii. Delayed assistance 3 years before D-Day (27 mil die in USSR while US & BR doesnt do anything)

US & USSR Superpowers Due to military strength atomic bomb/ economically strongest/ politically strongest (many allies)


Cold War

Conferences1. Tehran Conference, 1943 2. Yalta Conference, Feb 1945 o Happened in USSR o BIG THREE = CHURCHILL, ROOSEVELT AND STALIN Experienced veterans Roosevelt very sick, died soon after Wanted democracy and liberty Trusted Stalin Churchill strong-anticommunist Doesnt trust Stalin Worried about future EU and doesnt want expansionist USSR Stalin strong racist against GE Punish and destroy GE Discussions o Germany To be run as one Policies collectively decided by allies temporary governing o State of War GE on verge of being defeated 2nd front opened o Poland USSR took of Poland in exchange for free elections Polands borders move West and take territory from GE London Poles Polish members who ran to London to be safe Tried to oversee matters from far Some Poles wanted them to govern again However, there are the comm Lublin Poles o Causing internal struggle Fought amongst themselves USSR did not help because if they did, Warsaw would be liberated and become democratic Thus, 300 000 died while Stalin did nothing to stop it


Cold War Eastern EU free elections everywhere and Stalin agrees to this o Japan Stalin agreed to go to war with Japan As reward, demanded territory o United Nations US, Br and USSR members Ensure security Conclusion! o Agreement on UN o Soviet agreement to join war against JP o Signed Declaration of Liberated Europe free elections o

Developments between Yalta and Potsdam Roosevelt died, Truman takes over o Inexperienced o More aggressive and tough Churchill not re-elected, Clement Atlee takes over War in EU over USSR still all over Eastern EU Day after Potsdam, USA successfully tested its first atomic bomb o BR being told about it but didnt tell Stalin (Stalin, however, already knew)

3. Potsdam Conference, July 1945 Generally bad-tempered conference, no compromise Stalin, Clement Atlee and Truman Held in GE Discussions Germany o Agreed to disarm, demilitarize, de-Nazify Couldnt agree how o Soviets took reparations from other zones West 25% of industrial East agriculture/ got food Poland: o Truman doesnt agree with borders established at Yalta o Also doesnt agree the Lublin Poles running govt o Everyone thinks Stalin just wants more terrirtory Stalin insists its for security - protection from GE like WW1 and WW2


Cold War Eastern EU o Red army stays there Truman worries Stalin takes over them o Percentage Agreement Between C & S on their influence on Eastern EU o Japan Did not encourage Soviets to join war USA bombs JP Hiroshima & Nagasaki o United Nations Power of veto for all


Cold War

1945-47: Soviet Takeover of Eastern EU 1946: Long Telegram 1946: Iron Curtain Speech 1947: Truman Doctrine 1948: Marshall Plan/Comecon (1949) 1948-49: Berlin Blockade and Airlift 1949: Formation of NATO 1955: Warsaw Pact


Cold War

Policy of Containment (POC) in Asia

Korean War China Japan Taiwan Vietnam War


Cold War

Korean War (1950-53)Background Russo-JP war in 1905 o JP won o Humiliating for USSR Gained territory = KOREA! Kept it as their bread basket and took all raw materials from them Koreans RAWWRRR!!! But they remain under JP until end of WW2 After WW2, Korea free o Because of USSR and US o Stalin then tried to take Korea

Aug 6, 1945 First A-bomb dropped Aug 8, 1945 RU soldier sent to fight Aug 9, 1945 Second A-bomb dropped

Red Army soldiers went into the North Korea and Americans come in by boat taking South o Liberating Korea making JP surrender Americans then decided to divide Korea into two o 38th parallel line dividing Korea o Stalin agrees with this o Reasons Korea needed help after being occupied for so long US & USSR occupies it temporary o Problem? South agriculture North industry Less likely to work together

Aug 14, 1945 JP Surrender North Korea o Happy to be liberated by RU o Liked Comm


Cold War o Stalin nationalises industry Korean-state owned industries o Land reforms equal for everyone o Elections Comm Koreans in power and ALL JP eliminated o Leader? KIM IL SUNG South Korea o US poorly prepared Leaves JP there Military units took charge unpopular amongst people US did not want to be there long get UN to take over This keeps Korea divided US have puppet leader: RHEE

1948 2 countries officially created Democratic Republic of Korea (North) Republic of Korea (South)

Americans and Russians leave. Kim then wants to take power of the whole country. 1949: Berlin blockade done China becomes comm USSR develops A-bomb US not interested in Korea o This makes Stalin feel confident

1950: N Korea attacks S Korea Kim has Stalins support (provide weapons) But Stalin doesnt publicly get involved

NSC-68: Report written by an American Purpose: increase military spending in US Saying USSR very well-armed Beginnings of Arms Race o Report ignored at first o Soon realised comm takeover Report = extremely exaggerated 8

Cold War Nonetheless, report passed o Increased military spending o Became more aggressive Next level of POLICY OF CONTAINMENT

America develops tactic goes to UN for help UN countries agreed to get involved in Korea 16 nations create coalition to fight BUT majority of soldiers were American, led by general Douglas McArthur

Stages 1. N Korea invade S Korea Takes almost all over 2. Americans come in, close to 38th parallel and enters enemys territory 3. US strong push N Korea past 38th parallel McArthur then becomes confident about winning 4. Chinese come to Korea to help N Korea, pushing S Korea back

McArthur then insists on dropping A-bomb on China this causes everyone to be worried. Truman disagrees and said use DIPLOMATIC PRESSURE. McArthur said Truman weak.

1951: Truman fires McArthur 1952-3: Fighting continues Americans fighting a stalemate N and S Korea both militarised their borders at 38th parallel

1953: UN proposes an armistice Negotiates peace treaty Problem? Both sides very difficult to negotiate with and didnt sign peace treaty


Cold War

In the end, o o o o o US felt like they won with Policy of Containment but failed to push back communism Koreans :/ USSR lost some prestige China and N Korea felt that Stalin couldve done more Unknown war: no one really knew the purpose of war However! JP benefitted from war o US helped rebuild JP as they used it as base BUT 10 million died and Korea destroyed!!!!!!


Extra notes: DOMINO THEORY refers to communism spreading in Asia SEATO formed - to fight communism in Asia o Caused China to be diplomatically isolated o Taiwan well-protected Korean War o US stopped policy of containment o INSTEAD, uses Eisenhowers policy of massive retaliation use of nuclear arms o Proved UN capable to taking action US military expenditure from 13 billion to 50 billion per year


Cold War

Korea (success + failure in POC) Success in P.O.C. Failure in roll back of communism Cost US alot o $$ o Deaths Thus, not popular back home Military spending UP! = beginnings of arms race

Japan (success in POC) US wanted to destroy JP after WW2 o Changed mind o Scared if JP weak, theyd fall to communism o Thus, made JP allies US actions o Punished military leaders of country o Created new constitution increased democracy o Made JP anti-comm, as a threat to China red purge = eliminated all comm from govt o Used JP as base Thus, helped JP rebuild economically and militarily Successful!!!!!! o Strong military o Strong economy economic miracle o JP traditionally more conservative o JP allowed US to do anything to help


Cold War

Taiwan (success in POC) When Mao takes over China, Comm defeated nationalists o Nationalist escape to Taiwan o Fortify island from China o US did not really care Realised Taiwan not comm o Taiwan = only official Chinese state (acknowledged by west) o Sent US fleet to protect them Eisenhower threatened China to use nuclear power if China attacked Taiwan o China backed down o Thus, brinkmanship = scaring them= worked Success in P.O.C.

Vietnam (failure) 1955-75 Cambodia + Laos + N Vietnam = Indo China (under FR) o JP went here and took over in WW2 o After ww2, Indo China liberated and JP left Thought they were free but FR wanted them back Indo Chine