ICES WGMME REPORT Reports/Expert Group... ICES WGMME REPORT 2014 ICES A DVISORY C OMMITTEE ICES CM 2014/ACOM:27

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  • ICES WGMME REPORT 2014 ICES ADVISORY COMMITTEE

    ICES CM 2014/ACOM:27

    Report of the Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME)

    10–13 March 2014

    Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA

  • International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Conseil International pour l’Exploration de la Mer

    H. C. Andersens Boulevard 44–46 DK-1553 Copenhagen V Denmark Telephone (+45) 33 38 67 00 Telefax (+45) 33 93 42 15 www.ices.dk info@ices.dk

    Recommended format for purposes of citation:

    ICES. 2014. Report of the Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME), 10–13 March 2014, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA. ICES CM 2014/ACOM:27. 234 pp.

    For permission to reproduce material from this publication, please apply to the Gen- eral Secretary.

    The document is a report of an Expert Group under the auspices of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea and does not necessarily represent the views of the Council.

    © 2014 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea

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    Contents

    Executive summary ................................................................................................................ 7

    1 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 9

    2 Terms of Reference 2014 ............................................................................................. 10

    3 ToR A Review and report on any new information on population sizes, population/stock structure and management frameworks for marine mammals; specifically. This will contribute to the work required for the MoU between the European Commission and ICES to “provide new information regarding the impact of fisheries on other components of the ecosystem including small cetaceans and other marine mammals…” and to aid “scientific and technical developments in the support of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, such as by designing marine monitoring and assessment programmes, identifying research needs and methodologies advice”. OSPAR is also seeking advice from ICES in relation to the development of indicators and targets for determining Good Environmental Status (GES) under MSFD to which this will contribute......................................................................... 14

    3.1 New survey and abundance information ........................................................ 14 3.1.1 Distribution and abundance of harbour porpoise in the

    Kattegat, Belt Seas and western Baltic ................................................ 14 3.1.2 Abundance of harbour porpoise in the German North Sea

    and southwestern Baltic Sea ................................................................. 17 3.1.3 Abundance of harbour porpoise in Dutch waters ............................. 18 3.1.4 Abundance of harbour porpoise in Belgian waters .......................... 19 3.1.5 Distribution of cetaceans in French waters ........................................ 21 3.1.6 Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in continental

    Portuguese waters ................................................................................. 21 3.1.7 Abundance of harbour porpoises around the Dogger Bank

    (North Sea) .............................................................................................. 24 3.1.8 Large-scale cetacean surveys in the European Atlantic.................... 26

    3.2 Future surveys..................................................................................................... 26

    3.3 References ............................................................................................................ 26

    4 ToR B Provide information on abundance, distribution, population structure and incidental capture of marine mammals in the western North Atlantic (North Atlantic right whale, harbour porpoise and white-sided dolphin) .................................................................................................. 29

    4.1 North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) .......................................... 29 4.1.1 Distribution ............................................................................................. 29 4.1.2 Stock structure ........................................................................................ 31 4.1.3 Abundance .............................................................................................. 31 4.1.4 Current population trend ..................................................................... 32 4.1.5 Entanglement and ship strike serious injury and mortality ............ 33

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    4.2 Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus) ................................. 33 4.2.1 Distribution ............................................................................................. 33 4.2.2 Stock structure ........................................................................................ 34 4.2.3 Abundance .............................................................................................. 35 4.2.4 Fishery bycatch ....................................................................................... 35 4.2.5 Mid-Atlantic mid-water trawl fishery (including pair trawl) .......... 36 4.2.6 Canada ..................................................................................................... 37

    4.3 Harbour Porpoise (Phocena phocena phocena) ................................................... 37 4.3.1 Abundance .............................................................................................. 39 4.3.2 Bycatch .................................................................................................... 40 4.3.3 Newfoundland-Labrador ..................................................................... 42 4.3.4 Greenland................................................................................................ 43

    4.4 References ............................................................................................................ 43

    5 ToR C To review the further development of the Bycatch Limit Algorithm framework for determining safe bycatch limits. This work should include harbour porpoise, short-beaked common dolphin and consideration of additional species for which bycatch estimates have been made or suggested as a potential MSFD indicator (e.g. bottlenose dolphin, striped dolphin, harbour seal and grey seal). This should include a comparison with approaches used to assess bycatch in USA ............ 49

    5.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 49 5.2 Development of a bycatch limit algorithm approach .................................... 50

    5.3 Comparison of different approaches for setting safe limits to removals ............................................................................................................... 50 5.3.1 Percentage of abundance ...................................................................... 50 5.3.2 Potential Biological Removal (PBR) level ........................................... 51 5.3.3 The Revised Management Procedure ................................................. 51 5.3.4 Comparison of a bycatch limit algorithm approach with

    PBR ........................................................................................................... 52 5.4 Conclusions and recommendations ................................................................. 53

    5.5 References ............................................................................................................ 54

    6 ToR D Assess the Joint Cetacean Protocol outputs with a view to their contribution to international transboundary reporting requirements (e.g. for Article 17 of the Habitats Directive) and the operationalization of MSFD indicators, targets and appropriate baselines. Consideration should also be given to other approaches, such as those of the Atlantic marine Assessment programme (AMAPPS) which coordinates data collection and analysis for marine mammals and reptiles for population assessments .............................................. 55

    6.1 References ............................................................................................................ 57

    7 ToR E Update on development of database for seals and status of intersessional work, contribution to the operationalization of MSFD indicators, targets and appropriate baselines. Consideration should also be given to other approaches, such as those of the Atlantic Marine Assessment programme (AMAPPS) ......................................................................... 59

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    7.1 Requirement ........................................................................................................ 59 7.2 Area of relevance ................................................................................................ 59

    7.3 Issues .................................................................................................................... 60

    7.4 Database structure .............................................................................................. 60 7.4.1 Harbour seal metadata .......................................................................... 61 7.4.2 Harbour seal moult surveys ................................................................. 61 7.4.3 Harbour s