Dr. Craig S. KasperRoom BSCI 207E
Zoology 1450: Ichthyology
Instructor: Dr. Craig S. KasperOffice: Brandon BSCI 207EOffice Phone: 813-253-7881
Class Location: MW (10:00a-11:15a) BSCI 212
Text: Peter B. Moyle & Joeseph J. Cech, Jr.
Co-requisite: Ichthyology Laboratory, W (11:30a-1:00a) BSCI 212
Course Description: This course is an introduction to the study of fish. Topics introduced realte to fish anantomy, reproduction, physiology, nutrition, and general classificatio, family differences.
Zoology 1450: Ichthyology
Course Objectives: Fish identification (family) Fish Systematics:Skeletal DigestiveMuscle ReproductiveNervous Vascular Respiratory Urogenital C. Fish AnatomyD. Physiological Characteristics:ColorBioluminescenceSound ProductionSensory SystemsOsmoregulationE. ClassificationF. NutritionG. Aquatic EnvironmentH. Basics of Fish Reproduction
Zoology 1450: Ichthyology
Exams: Three exams (4) per semester.
No make-ups. (I will drop the lowest grade if you do happen to miss an exam. However the final will not be dropped.)
Exam format will be multiple choice, short answer, essay... basically whatever I decide.
Exam I\Exam II }----------75%Exam III/Final Exam-------25%Total 100%
Zoology 1450: Ichthyology
Grades: 100-90 (A), 89-80 (B), 79-70 (C), 69-60 (D), Below 60 (F).
Attendance: I wont take it, but youll miss material if youre not here. I wont pass out stuff later. Youll have to rely on your classmates...and you know how THAT is come test time.
Cheating: Two points hereF and expulsion...think about it.
Pagers and Cell Phone: TURN THEM OFF!!! Dont waste everyones time telling your buddies about last nights party! It wasnt THAT good...otherwise youd still be there or at home in bed!
Photo: Craig S. Kasper (2003)Dr. Craig S. KasperAquaculture Program ManagerHillsborough Community College10414 E. Columbus Dr.BSCI 207ETampa, FL 33619-7856Phone: 813-253-7881FAX: 813-253-7868Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Science of Ichthyology, Properties of Water & What IS a Fish Anyway?
Chapter 1 (Helfman, Collette & Facey)
History of Ichthyology
Introduction: Ichthyology the ScienceHistory
(Anient Greece) Aristotlefirst scientific description of fish (118 spp.)
1500 Guillaume RondeletDe Piscibus Marinum (244 spp.)
1686 George Markgraf'sNaturalis Brasilae (100 spp.)
1686 John Ray & Francis Willughby Historia Piscium (>400 spp.).
~1735 Linnaeus develops binomial nomencalture (two name, genus speices) Peter Artedi The father of ichthyology"a student of Linnaeus who identified five orders of "fishes" (includingcetaceans) and divided those into genera. Artedi got drunk and drowned in Amsterdam canal (Linnaeus published his manuscripts posthumously.)
1700s-1800sGlobal specimens deluged museums.
More History...1780s Marcus Elieser BlochIchthyologia as a series of volumes of plates. Johann Gottlob Schneider pub. M. E. Blochii Systemae Ichthyologiae (1,519 spp.)
1800s Georges Cuvier'sRegne animal distribu daprs son organisation (key step forward for fish classification) Cuvier also worked with his student Achille Valenciennes to produce the 22-volume Histoire Naturelle des Poissons (never completed) yet 4,514 spp.
1800s Albert GntherCatalogue of the Fishes of the British Museum >6,800 spp.described (another 1,700 mentioned).
1859 Charles DarwinOrigin of the Species, animals placed within a common genus shared ancestral lineage.
~1900 David Starr Jordan (greatest ichthyologist at time)wrote 650 articles and books on fish, also president of Indiana and Stanford Universities.
Still more history...1896-1898 B.W. EvermannFishes of North America describedALL fish known in N. America and Panama at the time (4 volumes).
1947 Leo BergRussian paleoichthyologist who combined study of fish and fossil records, Classification of Fishes, Recent and Fossil. First introduced the cocept of iformes to endings offish orders, eliminated confusion.
1966 Greenwood et al.produced the first modern classification of the majority of present day fishes.
1994 Balon et al.compilation of contributions to ichthyology by women scientists.
Resources...Many resources for fish information.Texts: Moyle and Cech 1996, Bond 1996, Bone 1994.Journals: Copeia, Transaction of the American Fisheries Society, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, Aquaculture, Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, North American Journal of Aquaculture, Journal of Fish Biology, Journal of Ichthyology, etc...Internet: www.fishbase.org, www.aquanic.org, www.afs.org (You can find almost anything out there, but read CAREFULLY!! Some stuff is still trash!)
What is a fish??Classic definition:-Any of numerous cold-blooded aquatic vertebrates of the superclass Pisces, characteristically having fins, gills, and a streamlined body and including specifically, and...-Any of the class Osteichthyes, having a bony skeleton, and...-Any of the class Chondrichthyes, having a cartilaginous skeleton and including the sharks, rays, and skates.
Although this is all accurate...we will find that fish are considerably MORE!!
Fish similarities...Vertebrate (or chordate)Gills PoikilothermicFinsScalesAlways exceptions!
Fish Diversity>25,000 speices (spp.) of fish today(note: fish is singular, fishes more than one spp.) 41% freshwater58% seawater~1% both (neither)
Where Do Fish Live?Great environmental diversity = many fish spp.Earths surface~70% oceans, part of remaining 30% freshwater.
Fish can live about three miles above sea level (15,000 feet)...
...to nearly seven miles beneath it (35,000 feet).
Fish live in sub-zero temperatures in Antarctica...
... to hot spring water of more than 100F.
Water Quality in Aquaculture
TopicsWater CharacteristicsWater SourcesWater BalanceChemicalsStratification
Water quality determines the success or failure of fish culture.
Properties of Water*AqueousTerrestrial Oxygen0-14 mg/L 21%
Temperature + 10C + 40C
DensityVariable Constant-max density 4C-high specific heat-alters light penetrationCompositionVariable ConstantUniversal solvent-gas, salts, liquids
*References: (1) Boyd, C. 1990 (2) Lawson, T.B., 1995
Eat (Sleep)BreatheExcrete wastesReproduceTake in and lose saltsQ: Why is water quality important??
A: Fish perform ALL bodily functions in water!
Water SourcesWells and springsGroundwaterStreams, rivers and lakesMunicipal
WellsAdvantagesUsually constant temperatureUsually free of wild fish and insects DisadvantagesWill require pumping unless artesianMay have high levels of CO2
SpringsAdvantagesNo pumping costsRelatively stable temperatureDisadvantagesFlow rates may vary with seasonInsects or fish may inhabit
Groundwater/run-offAdvantagesNo pumping costsDisadvantagesLevel may vary with seasonDifficult to drain
Streams, Rivers & LakesAdvantagesLarge quantities may be availableDisadvantagesTemperature varies widelyExcess nutrients may be presentUnwanted fish and insectsQuality is questionable
MunicipalAdvantageHigh qualityDisadvantagesChlorine or chloramine presentExpensive
Groundwater Availability in Florida
Water QuantityPonds13 gallons/minute/acreRaceways500 gallons/minuteWater Re-UseVaries
Osmoregulation: swfwChinook salmon are osmoregulators
Water plantsFoodExcessfoodFishesPeptidesAmino acidsUrineUreaAmmonia(NH )AlgaeNitrate (NO )Nitrite (NO )Feces233The Nitrogen Cycle
Time Required for Bio-Filter to Mature
100500456789101112Free COHCOCOPercent of Total CO23-=23pHEffects of pH on Various Buffers
765432105 pm10 pm5 amMeasured valuesProjected valuesmg/lProjectedDissolved Oxygen Levels
Percent of Total Ammoniain the Un-Ionized Form (NH3) atVarious Temperatures and pHpercent AmmoniaTemperature (F) (pH) 7.0 8.09.0 500.19 1.83 15.7680.403.8228.4860.807.4644.6
Breakdown of AmmoniaExcreted into Water by FishAmmonia (NH3)Nitrites (NO2 )Nitrates (NO3)Nitrosomonas spp.Nitrobacter spp.O2O2
12 mg/l1 ton12 - 14 mg/l3/4 ton15 - 25 mg/l1/4 - ton25 mg/l or moreNoneTotal Alkalinity Lime/Surface AreaGuidelines of Application of Lime
Uniform dissolved O2 in pond
DecomposingmaterialsLow dissolvedoxygen (cool)High dissolvedoxygen (warm)
Low dissolved oxygen - possible fish killTurnover
Low D. O. can killfish within 1 or 2 hours.
Fish Shapes: Form is Function
Next time:Systematics Chapter 2 (Helfman, Collette & Facey)