Dr. Craig S. KasperRoom BHUM 111
The Science of Ichthyology, Properties of Water & What IS a Fish Anyway? Zoology 1450 Chapter 1 (Helfman, Collette & Facey)
History of Ichthyology
Introduction: Ichthyology the ScienceHistory
384-322 B.C. Aristotlefirst scientific description of fish (118 spp.)
Introduction: Ichthyology the Science
1500 Guillaume RondeletDe Piscibus Marinum (244 spp.)
1686 George Markgraf'sNaturalis Brasilae (100 spp.)
Introduction: Ichthyology the ScienceHistory1686 John Ray & Francis Willoughby Historia Piscium (>400 spp.).
Carolus (Karl) Linnaeus father of taxonomy(1670-1738) develops binomial nomenclature (two name, genus species)
Genus SpeciesOncorhynchus mykissCommon name: Rainbow trout
A Fish Oddity:Peter Artedi The father of ichthyology"a student of Linnaeus who identified five orders of aquatic and marine animals (including cetaceans) and divided those into genera. In 1732 both left Uppsala: Artedi for England, and Linnaeus for Lapland; before parting they reciprocally bequeathed to each other their manuscripts and books in the event of death. How fortunate for them! In an untimely demise, Artedi got drunk and drowned in Amsterdam canal! Linnaeus published his manuscripts posthumously.So, dead men do tell tails...apparently!
More History...1780s Marcus Elieser BlochIchthyologia as a series of volumes of plates. Johann Gottlob Schneider pub. M. E. Blochii Systemae Ichthyologiae (1,519 spp.)
1800s Georges Cuvier'sRegne animal distribu daprs son organisation (key step forward for fish classification). Cuvier also worked with his student Achille Valenciennes to produce the 22-volumeHistoire Naturelle des Poissons (nevercompleted) yet 4,514 spp.
1800s Albert Gnther Catalogue of the Fishes of the British Museum >6,800 d (another 1,700 mentioned).
1859 Charles DarwinOrigin of the Species, animals placed within a common genus shared ancestral lineage.
Charles Darwin, 1854
~1900 David Starr Jordan (greatest ichthyologist at the time)wrote 650 articles and books on fish.
He was also president of Indiana and Stanford Universities.
Still more history...1896-1898 B.W. EvermannFishes of North America describedALL fish known in N. America and Panama at the time (4 volumes).
1947 Leo BergRussian paleoichthyologist who combined study of fish and fossil records, Classification of Fishes, Recent and Fossil. First introduced the concept of iformes to endings offish orders, eliminated confusion.
1966 Greenwood et al.produced the first modern classification of the majority of present day fishes.
1994 Balon et al.compilation of contributions to ichthyology by women scientists.
Resources...Many resources for fish information.Texts: Moyle and Cech 1996, Bond 1996, Bone 1994.Journals: Copeia, Transaction of the American Fisheries Society, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, Aquaculture, Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, North American Journal of Aquaculture, Journal of Fish Biology, Journal of Ichthyology, etc...Internet: www.fishbase.org, www.aquanic.org, www.afs.org (You can find almost anything out there, but read CAREFULLY!! Some stuff is still trash!)
What is a fish??Classic definition:-Any of numerous cold-blooded aquatic vertebrates of the superclass Pisces, characteristically having fins, gills, and a streamlined body and including specifically, and...-Any of the class Osteichthyes, having a bony skeleton, and...-Any of the class Chondrichthyes, having a cartilaginous skeleton and including the sharks, rays, and skates.
Although this is all accurate...we will find that fish are considerably MORE!!
Fish similarities...Vertebrate (or chordate)Gills PoikilothermicFinsScalesAlways exceptions!
Fish Diversity>30,000 species (spp.) of fish today(note: fish is singular, fishes more than one spp.) 41% freshwater58% seawater~1% both (neither)
Where Do Fish Live?Great environmental diversity = many fish spp.Earths surface~70% oceans, part of remaining 30% freshwater.
Fish can live three miles above sea level (15,000 feet)...
...to nearly 35,000 ft down.
Fish live in sub-zero temperatures in Antarctica...
... to hot spring water of more than 100F.
Properties of Water*AqueousTerrestrial Oxygen0-14 mg/L 21%
Temperature + 10C + 40C
DensityVariable Constant-max density 4C-high specific heat-alters light penetrationCompositionVariable ConstantUniversal solvent-gas, salts, liquids
*References: (1) Boyd, C. 1990 (2) Lawson, T.B., 1995
Eat (Sleep)BreatheExcrete wastesReproduceTake in and lose saltsQ: Why is water quality important??
A: Fish perform ALL bodily functions in water!
Fish Shapes: Form is Function
Fish vary in morphological cross-section drastically.
REM: Form & function go hand in hand here.
Next time:Systematics Quiz 3, Chapter 2 (Helfman, Collette & Facey)
Photo: Craig S. Kasper (2003)Dr. Craig S. KasperAquaculture Program ManagerHillsborough Community College10414 E. Columbus Dr.BHUM 111Tampa, FL 33619-7856Phone: 813-253-7881FAX: 813-253-7868Email: firstname.lastname@example.org