Indic Cosmology

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THE STORY OF THE INDIC COSMOLOGY AND THE CELESTIAL TIME KEEPERS

Kosla Vepa

Indic Studies Foundation

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TABLE OF CONTENTSThe story of the Indic cosmology and the celestial time keepers ....................................................................................... 1 Table of Contents .................................................................................................................................................................. 2 Chapter i Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................... 5 Th reluctance of Indologists in the occident to acknowledge the vedic episteme ............................................................. 6 Table 1 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7 Indian Cosmology and TIMELINES OF History .................................................................................................................... 7 the Celestial Sphere ........................................................................................................................................................... 7 ecliptic (Kranthivruth) ............................................................................................................................................. 9 The coordinates of the Celestial sphere ........................................................................................................................... 10 Figure 4 and 5 The celestial Sphere INDICATING THE Solstices and the Equinoxes ......................................................... 11 equinox (Vasanth Sampat) Vernal equinox ........................................................................................................ 12 Solstice ............................................................................................................................................................................ 13 pRECession of the Equinoxes ........................................................................................................................................... 13 Table 2 ............................................................................................................................................................................. 13 Solstice ............................................................................................................................................................................ 13 synopsis of equatorial coordinate system ........................................................................................................................ 14 The Year........................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Table 3 Difference between the Sidereal and Tropical Year ............................................................................................. 15 Hindu calendar - Year numbering .................................................................................................................................... 16 Table 4 SUMMARY of various Measures of a year ........................................................................................................... 16 Table 5 Planetary Revolutions in Mahayuga of 4,320,000 years ...................................................................................... 17 The Month ....................................................................................................................................................................... 17 Figure 10. ......................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Table 6 The names of the solar months( Sauramaas) are as follows ............................................................................... 21 Table 7 Months of the lunisolar calendar ......................................................................................................................... 22 2

The elements of the Panchangam,,, ................................................................................................................................. 23 Table 8 The 5 elements of the Panchanga........................................................................................................................ 23 The Tithi........................................................................................................................................................................... 23 Week days ( Vaara) .......................................................................................................................................................... 24 Table 9 Days of the Week ................................................................................................................................................ 25 Table 10 The Days of of the Indian Lunar Synodic Month ................................................................................................ 27 The Nakshatra and the key role it plays in Ancient Indian Astronomy ............................................................................ 28 Nakshatra and The Precession of the equinoxes .............................................................................................................. 30 Table 11 The Indian Nakshatra ........................................................................................................................................ 31 Table 12 Values for the Lunar sidereal orbit and the Lunar Synodic orbit ........................................................................ 32 Yoga ................................................................................................................................................................................. 33 Table 13 Comparison of some astronomical constants .................................................................................................... 34 How old is the universe, Kalachakra and the Yuga concept, Hindu cosmological time frames ......................................... 35 Table 14 a day in Brahmas life of 1 Kalpa ........................................................................................................................ 35 Table 15 How old is the universe .................................................................................................................................... 36 Chapter II History of the Calendar in India ........................................................................................................................... 39 Appendix A Glossary ............................................................................................................................................................ 40 Appendix B Maps ................................................................................................................................................................. 60 Appendix C Pictorial Vignettes ............................................................................................................................................. 68 Appendix D Vedic Epistemology ...................................................................................................................................... 70 The Vedic Paradigm for the development of Knowledge ................................................................................................ 70 Appendix e Index of Indic Savants in the computational sciences from antiquity ............................................................ 78 References ....................................................................................................................................................................... 81 Appendix f Select Bibliography ........................................................................................................................................ 81 Abbreviations ...................................................................................................................................................................... 85 Primary and other Sources in the Indic Sciences of antiquity ............................................................................................... 87 Primary Sources ............................................................................................................................................................... 87 3

Other Sources .................................................................................................................................................................. 90 Appendix e Bibliography Kosambis catalogue of Primary Source Material ................................................................... 100 Appendix E kosambis Chronological Outline. ................................................................................................................ 104 Appendix F Sources of Sanskrit Manuscripts In India ........................................................................................................ 106 Appendix G Astronomical Observatories in India ........................................................................................................... 115 Stone Observatories of Jai Singh .................................................................................................................................... 115 The old Madras Observatory ...........................................................................