Integrated Energy Systems for Hydrogen and ... Integrated Energy Systems for Hydrogen and Chemicals

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  • Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Annual Merit Review

    May 2020

    Idaho National Laboratory Shannon Bragg-Sitton, Ph.D. NE Lead, Integrated Energy Systems Nuclear Science & Technology Directorate

    Richard Boardman, Ph.D. ChE Technology Development Lead for Integrated Energy Systems Energy and Environmental Sciences & Technology Directorate

    Integrated Energy Systems for Hydrogen & Chemicals Production

  • DESIGNING OUR FUTURE ENERGY SYSTEMS What goals are we trying to achieve?

    How will energy be used?

    What role(s) will nuclear fill?

    2

  • INNOVATIVE NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGIES FOR

    CURRENT AND FUTURE ENERGY SYSTEMS

  • ADVANCED REACTORS

    Benefits: • Enhanced safety • Versatile applications • Reduced waste • Apply advanced

    manufacturing to reduce costs

  • INTEGRATED ENERGY SYSTEMS Maximizing the contribution of carbon-free energy generation for electricity, industry, and transportation – while

    supporting a resilient grid and converting valuable resources to higher value products

  • Integrated Energy Systems: A Key Opportunity for Nuclear Energy

    Today Electricity-only focus

    Small Modular Reactors

    New Chemical

    Processes

    Flexible Generators  Advanced Processes  Revolutionary Design

    Micro Reactors

    Large Light Water

    Reactors

    Potential Future Energy System Integrated grid system that leverages contributions from nuclear

    fission beyond electricity sector

    Advanced Reactors Clean Water

    Hydrogen for Vehicles and Industry

    Industry Heat

  • Modelica®, Aspen Dynamics®

    RAVEN (INL System Optimization)

    Aspen Plus® and HYSYS® Process Models

    Graded approach to identify design, and evaluate hybrid system architectures

    Dynamic modeling addresses technical and control

    feasibility

    System modeling addresses whole-system

    coordination

    Process modeling addresses technical and economic

    value proposition

    Cross-cutting Energy System Modeling, Analysis, and Evaluation

    7

  • INL Dynamic Energy Transport and Integration Laboratory (DETAIL)

    INL Experimental Demonstration of Integrated Systems

    Data Links to DETAIL Components and Unit Operations: System-Level Controller to Unit-Level Controllers

    Thermal Energy Distribution

    System (TEDS)

    Simulated Nuclear Reactor

    ARTIST

    Programmable Heating Elements

    Steam or Gas Turbine

    Intermediate Heat Exch.

    Thermal Energy Storage

    Dynomometer Power Grid

    or Community Power

    High Temperature Steam Electrolysis PowerConverter

    Future Baseload Power Gen Capability

    Chemicals / Fuels Synthesis

    O2 H2

    Storage

    System Integration Lab Microgrid Components

    Wind EV and Battery Charging

    Flow- Through Chemical Batteries

    PV Solar Q

    QSET

    CLR

    S

    R

    Vin

    GND

    Vref

    B1

    B8

    Sign

    ENB

    A/D Converter

    Digital Real-Time Simulator Stations

    System Monitoring & Control

    Other Power Generation Operations

    Carbon Feedstocks CO2, Biomass

    Natural Gas, Coal

    Establishing the experimental capability to demonstrate coordinated, controlled, and efficient transient distribution of electricity and heat for power generation, storage, and industrial end uses.

    TEDS: Thermal Energy Distribution System MAGNET: Microreactor Agile Nonnuclear Experiment Testbed HTSE: High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

  • INL Dynamic Energy Transport and Integration Laboratory (DETAIL)

    INL Experimental Demonstration of Integrated Systems

    Establishing the experimental capability to demonstrate coordinated, controlled, and efficient transient distribution of electricity and heat for power generation, storage, and industrial end uses.

    Fast Charging

    Thermal Energy Delivery System & Microreactor Test Bed (in procurement)

    Distributed Energy

    Synthesis Reactor

    Energy Storage Vehicles Hydrogen Power Systems Grid

    Emulation High Temp Electrolysis

    Wireless Charging

    Battery Testing (out of picture)

  • 10

    Coordinated Energy Systems

    Tightly Coupled Hybrid Systems

    • Holistic Integration of the energy system

    • Involve electrical, thermal, and chemical networks

    • Utilize energy storage on various scales

    • Provide reliable, sustainable, low-emissions, most affordable energy

    • Involve thermal, electrical, and process intermediates integration

    • More complex than co- generation, poly-generation, or combined heat and power

    • May exploit the economics of coordinated energy systems

    • May provide grid services through demand response (import or export)

    Electrochemical Polymers Plant

    Renewable Biomass

    Dispatchable Electrolysis Co-Electrolysis

    O2H2

    Storage

    Ammonia & Fertilizer Production

    Regional Ethanol Plants

    Formic Acid/Formate Electrochemcial Process

    Process Offgas CO2

    Electricity

    Steam Bypass

    Davis-Besse Nuclear Plant

    Fertilizer

    Th er

    m al

    E ne

    rg y

    Tr an

    sp or

    t

    Hy dr

    og en

    Hydrogen

    Plastics Recycle

    Plastics, Fibers & Commodity Products

    Hydrogen

    Electricity Grid Load 1

    Load 2 y

    Electricity Storage Giga-Watt Batteries

    Solar Wind

    Natural Gas Supply

    Variable Renewable Energy Sources

    Natural Gas/H2 Power Gen: Hybrid Carbon Conversion

    Gas Turbines

    In-Situ

    Hydrogenation

    Biomass Upgrading & Chemicals Production

    Methanol Synthesis

    Storage Tank

    Formic Acid

    Formic Acid

    Plastics Recycling & Municipal Waste

    Formic Acid Decomposer

    Formic Acid Derivative Chemicals

    Electricity Transmission

    H2 and Formic Acid

    Fuel Cells

    Gas Separation

    Process Offgas CO2

    R ec

    yc le

    C

    O 2

    Local H2 Users

    Power Transactions with Grid

    Methanol Derivative Chemicals

    Hydrogen Industries

    Enhancing Natural Gas Power

    Ion Ore

    Electric Arc

    Furnace

    Scrap Metals Recycle

    Metals & Metals Products

    En er

    gy R

    et en

    tio n

    In F

    ee ds

    to ck

    s:

    A no

    th er

    E ne

    rg y

    St or

    ag e

    R es

    er vo

    ir

  • • Evaluation of Hydrogen Production Feasibility for a Light Water Reactor in the Midwest Repurposing existing Exelon plant for H2 production via high temperature electrolysis; use of produced hydrogen for multiple off-take industries (ammonia and fertilizer production, steel manufacturing, and fuel cells) (INL/EXT-19-55395)

    • Evaluation of Non-electric Market Options for a Light-water Reactor in the Midwest LWR market opportunities for LWRs with a focus on H2 production using low-temperature and high-temperature electrolysis; initial look at polymers, chemicals, and synfuels (INL/EXT-19-55090)

    Recent Hydrogen Production Analyses for Current Fleet LWRs

    INL issued public-facing reports on in FY19 that provide the foundation for demonstration of using LWRs to produce non-electric products:

    11

    **H2@Scale is a complementary, collaborating program supported by the DOE Energy Efficiency & Renewable

    Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office.

    https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1569271-evaluation-hydrogen-production-feasibility-light-water-reactor-midwest https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1559965-evaluation-non-electric-market-options-light-water-reactor-midwest

  • 12

    Light Water Nuclear Reactor with HTE Process Heat Integration

    12

    High-temperature Recuperation

    Low-temperature Recuperation

    Topping Heat

    HTSE Vessel Boundary

    Nuclear process heat

    Nuclear process heat

    SOEC StacksCathode side

    Anode side

    24ºC (75ºF)

    160ºC (320ºF)

    271ºC (520ºF)

    684ºC (1263ºF)

    800ºC (1472ºF)

    800ºC (1472ºF)

    Low-temp. recup.

    Nuclear heat

    High-temp. recup.

    Electrical topping Heat

    Electrolysis

  • 1313

    INL Preliminary Process Design Reference

     Thermal heat from LWR

     Electricity from LWR

     Membranes separations processes in design

  • Example Test for Non-Spinning Reserve: Electrolyzer ramps down in 10 mins while NPP dispatches electricity

    to the grid; then returns to full load after one hour.

    • Purpose & Scope 1. Demonstrate hydrogen production using direct electrical power offtake from a nuclear power plant for a commercial, 1-3 MWe, low-temperature (PEM) electrolysis module 2. Acquaint NPP operators with monitoring and controls procedures and methods for scaleup to la