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1.FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEMATIC AND DEFINING THE NEED FOR THIS STUDY William Blake (1757-1827) gave rise to the notion of free-verse in twentieth century and he acknowledges that poets have frequently chafed at the formal demands they inherit, which is why Shakespeare in his plays, and Milton in his epic poetry, derived their verse from rhyme and wrote blank verse (in Wainwright, 2004:94). Moreover, Wainwright (ibid: 95) states that there is a powerful part of free-verse which appeals to boarder hopes of liberation. As a result, the need of liberation for poetry style namely free-verse in contemporary English poetry, on one hand and the lack of framework and defined genre in contemporary English poetry, on the other hand, leads me to attempt to introduce the defined style of New Wave which already exists in the SL (Farsi/ Persian) and to make a small contribution to its development for the sake of liberation in poetry. As Poetry Fetterd Fetters the Human Race(ibid).

2. FORMULATION OF THE THESIS The well-known Persian style of New Wave poetry which is the literally translation of its term , can be established in contemporary English poetry to cover free-verse style and develop its futures in a specific genre under the name of New Wave Poetry. This will offer the liberation and truth in poetry in which Blake views the true voice as the original voice of humankind comes from divine inspiration and con not be confined (ibid). Furthermore, there are specific aims through my whole dissertation that I would like to achieve and I questioning them as follow: What variables create different styles of poetry? What impact do cultures have on shaping these styles? How these variables and cultural matters transfer in poetry translation? Could New Wave poetry define itself in contemporary English poetry? Could New Wave poetry establish the liberation sought by contemporary English poets?


3.METHODOLOGY & REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON THIS FIELD The methodology employed for developing this dissertation includes two steps. First, I will translate the selected poems of New Wave genre from various poets into English and assess each translated poem on the basis of New Wave characteristics. Second, I will evaluate the impacts of the introduced style on experts in TL (English) through audiovisual interviews from Ver Poet International Poetry Club in London. The main theory implicated in poetry translation (chapter 6) is a German method of translation, Umdichtung (a poem remodelled on another) that first pointed out and distinguished by Borges in his famous 1967 Harvard lectures. I will apply this method through rendering of all poems considering the point of view Erna Bennett drew out that the translator responds to his own poetic instincts. He/She chooses which of the poem's many threads he/she will seek to interpret that here is the characteristics of New Wave which Im going to discuss these features in detail in next chapter. Also, as far as this style is contemporary, the audiences are to be considered as young adults and contemporary poets. So, having the skopos on mind, it is a fresh concept through modernism and transmitting the elements for now on and future. Moreover, in rendering New Wave poetry, it is possible to keep the form and content through remodelling the poem and this is because of the characteristics of this genre; however, there is not only differences of linguistic affiliation but also highly diverse cultures in the terms of relatedness between English and Farsi/Persian(Nida in Venuti, 2000).The rest of aspects and objectives of whole dissertation (i.e. cultural issues, ideological and political points of view and constraints) will be accomplished through incorporating Lefevere and Venuti points of view (Venuti, 2000; ibid, 1995). To get through these patterns, in next two chapters, I suggest that insights to both Farsi and English contemporary poetry will provide a better background for the new notion of New Wave.


Please refer to the Appendix for each chapter in order to observe the process of actual dissertation which contains the extracts of each. 4. ANALYSIS OF NEW WAVE STYLE IN CONTEMPORARY PERSIAN POETRY AND ITS CHARACTRERISTICS 4-1.Introducing the founder of this style and his poetry collection Ahmad Reza Ahmadi; The founder and Propagator of the New Wave Ahmad Reza Ahmadi was born on May 19th 1940 in Kerman city Iran. He moved to Tehran in 1947 and continued his studies in Dar-Al-Fonun high school. Ahmadi published his first of poems titled The Scheme (Tarh) in 1962. In those years (1961-62) a number of young poets created a style regardless of experiences and achievements of classical poetry and Nima poetry basics, called the New Wave1. Experts of the contemporary school of poetry believe that the New Wave is known by The Scheme. Ahmad Reza Ahmadis poetry was inspired by Houshang Iranis poems at that time, and one may dare to say that Ahmadi utilized Iranian poems to create the New Wave. Ahmad Reza Ahmadi is the most prominent and well-known New Wave poet, or in other words, the New Wave is always the reminder of his poetry and name. Ahmad Reza Ahmadi is the real representative and founder of this school since 1961 by publishing poetry series such as The Scheme (1962), The Glass Newspaper (1964), The Good Time of disasters (1968), I Just a Cried a White Horse (1971), The Rhyme is Gone with the Wind (1986), There Was a Stain of Life on the Wall (1989), I Confide the Ruins of Heart to the Wind (1990), One Thousand Stairs Remaining to the Sea ( 1985), All Those Years (1988), One Thousand Acacia Were Nothing in Your Eyes (1996),. As mentioned earlier, The New Wave began with The Scheme, but consolidated as a professional movement of contemporary poetry by The Glass Newspaper(Shadkhast, 2006: 311- 314).1

Ali Babachahi, Poetry Movements Since 1960s Until Today, (Adineh, 1988: 32).


4-2.Introducing Persian poets of this field Ahmadis poetry was welcomed massively at that time and many poets followed him. Poets like: Mohammad Reza Aslani, Shahrokh Safayi, Sharam Sharokhtash, Fereydoon Moazzezi Moqaddam, M. Noufel, Mohammad Reza Fashahi, Azim Khalili, Majid Nafisi, Tirdad Nosrati, Hossein Mahdavi (M. Moayyed), Javad Mojabi, Yadollah Rouyayi, Bijan Elahi, Bahram Ardebili, Hossein Rasayel, Houtan Nejat, Hamid Erfan and Parviz Eslampour (the poet of new wave and content poetry). Ismaeel Nouri Ala believes that except Hossein Mahdavi, Javad Mojabi and Rouyayi who were among rhythmist poets of the new wave, the rest were writing poems in prose . From among the contemporary poets, Bijan Najdi and Ali Ghelich Khani can be considered as new wave poets (ibid:314). 4-3.Introducing the framework and its characteristics Rhythm and New Wave Ahmad Reza Ahmadi turns to non-rhythmic poetry which corresponded with free verse. His poems are mostly lacking prosodic, even inner harmony. Putting the rhythm aside made many young poets welcome the new wave, and the magazines of that time got stuffed with poems of new wave poets. Shams Langroudi defines New Wave features in his Analytical History of the modern Poetry as follows: 1.Separation of practical and daily duty of the words and language from the words and language themselves. 2.Creation of different occasion and relations between words, pictures and objects. 3.Creation of a new and bizarre intellectual atmosphere, not by description and delineation, but by making an atmosphere, not line by line, but in wholeness of a poem (ibid: 313-315).


4-4.Including different points of view of contemporary Persian poets on New Wave poetry Mehrdad Samadi, who was among the most tenacious defendants of the new wave in those years, writes about Ahmadi: Whatever the form is, Ahmadi is extremely skillful in starting his poems and ending them, and this is very important in his notional poems without a logical flow. Endings in poems with a possible conclusion are mostly abstract and categorical, and sometimes visual. That is to say, Ahmad Reza Ahmadi is not bound to observe a specific format in poetry and in his opinion, the scheme and the story are of more importance than its format. Ahmadis poems format are stirred with notion and thought, and he uses different pictures merely to clarify his notions. Unlike content poetry ( ) which rejects simile and metaphor completely, the new wave uses them in a proper way. In addition, utilization of numerous pictures survives the new wave poetry from getting stuck in prose trap. In the new wave, instruments are put aside, and the new wave poet pays more attention to the relation of instruments than instruments themselves for a new wave poet everything is considered as being an instrument. many poets, critiques and devotees of modern poetry opposed the new wave. Although Forough Farrokhzad liked Ahmad Reza Ahmadis poems, but she suggested him to observe rhythm in his poetry. She writes in a letter to Ahmad Reza Ahmadi: Dear Ahmad Reza! Dont forget the Rhythm, dont forget it multiplied by a thousand, pay attention to this. I swear to God that I wish your talent and delicacy and taste to be flown in a reliable and strong path. Your words are worth being memorized. I believe that you havent found your form yet, and your style is not a right one. What you have chosen is not called freedom. Its a kind of indifference and lax. Its just like the condition where someone violates all moralities, saying Im tired of all these stuff, and lives in an indifferent way. While destruction, if doesnt lead to a new building, is not an adorable deed in itself. Look and live as much as you can, and understand the rhythm of this life. If you even look at the leaves of a tree, youll find out that they tremble in the wind, with an orderly rhythm. Same are a5

birds wings. When they soar, they move their wings so fast without stopping, and when they reach the peak, they keep them i


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