Latin American Peoples Win Independence
European Empires: 1660s
Latin American Revolutions!
16c-18c: New Ideas Brewing in Europe
Early Struggles in Latin AmericaThe Enlightenment and the American and French revolutions inspired some in Latin America to seek greater freedom.
Latin America Socially DividedSocial class, based on race & ethnicity, dictated peoples place in societyAt top of society were peninsulares = born in Spain- Tiny % of popul., could hold high govt officeSecond to the top were the creoles = Spaniards born in Latin America - No high govt office, but could rise as officers in armyThird were the mestizos = persons of mixed European and Indian ancestryFourth were the mulattos = persons of mixed European and African ancestry- Also included African slavesIndians were at the bottom of the social ladder
Revolutions in Venezuela, Ecuador, & Peru1811-1822Creoles were least oppressed, but best educatedLearned of Enlightenment ideas & RevolutionsCreoles felt no loyalty to French king (Napoleon)When king deposed, power should shift to the people (Locke)
Creoles Lead Independence Simn BolivarWealthy Venezuelan creole Spent time in Europe and the newly-independent United StatesCalled Libertador (liberator)Led volunteer army of revolutionaries in struggle for independenceWon Venezuelas independence in 1821
Creoles Lead IndependenceJos de San MartinArgentinian military officerWon Argentinas independence in 1816Led army against Spanish forces to free ChilePartnered with Bolivar to drive Spanish forces out of Peru Decisive victory at Battle of Ayacucho in 1824Future countries of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, & Ecuador united into Gran Colombia
Simn Bolivar Meets Jos de San Martin
Bolivar & San Martin Fight for Independence!
Mexico Ends Spanish Rule1810-1821Ethnic & racial groups mixed freelyIndians & mestizos led revolutionPadre Miguel Hidalgo, priest of village of Dolores, called for rebellion against the Spanish in 1811grito de Dolores (cry of Dolores)Defeated by Spanish army & creoles in Mexico cityPadre Jos Mara Morelos led revolution for four more years but was defeated in 1815
Mexico Ends Spanish RuleTurning point in 1820 when revolution in Spain put liberal group in powerMexicos creoles united in support of Mexicos independence from SpainAgustn de Iturbide (who had defeated Morelos), proclaimed Mexicos independence in 1821
HoweverBefore the Mexican revolution, Central America was part of New SpainDeclared independence from New Spain and from Mexico as wellIturbide refused to recognize this independence, but was overthrown in 1823Central America declared its absolute independence from Mexico and became known as the United Provinces of Central AmericaFuture countries of Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica
Brazils Royal LiberatorIndependence occurred w/o violence or bloodshedWhen Napoleons army approached Portugal, the prince and royal family escaped to Rio de Janiero in BrazilAfter Napoleons defeat, the royal family went back to Portugal except for Dom Pedro, who stayed in BrazilIn 1822, Brazilians demanded independence from Portugal and petitioned for Dom Pedro to rule Brazil Sept. 7, 1822 Dom Pedro declared Brazils independenceFlag of the Empire of Brazil, 1822-1889Pedro de Alcntara Francisco Antnio Joo Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim Jos Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim de Bragana e Bourbon
Latin American States After the Revolutions