Madhubani Art

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Text of Madhubani Art

  • CONSUMER PREFERENCE FOR MADHUBANI ART

    FOUNDATION BUSINESS

    PEARL ACADEMY

    SUBMITTED TO MRS. VASUNDHRA H. GUPTA

    SUBMITTED BY -

    GROUP MEMBERS: NISHA DIWAKER

    SAUMAKSHI MAHANA

    VAIDEHI SUPAKAR

    (SECTION C)

  • Acknowledgement

    We would like to take this opportunity to express our profound gratitude and deep regard to our

    teachers Mrs. Vasundhra Harsh Gupta and Mrs. Usha Gupta, for their exemplary guidance, valuable

    feedback and constant encouragement throughout the duration of the project. Their valuable

    suggestions were of immense help throughout our project work. Their perceptive criticism kept us

    working to make this project in a much better way. Working under them was an extremely

    knowledgeable experience for my group.

    We would also like to give our sincere gratitude to all the friends and colleagues who filled in the

    survey, without which this research would be incomplete.

    Executive Summary

    Madhubani is an folk artform which originates from Bihar and also known as Mithila and basically

    made for each occasion and festival such as birth, marriage, holi, Durga puja,etc. But according to

    local mythology, the time of its origin is traced back to the time of the Ramayana, when, for the

    wedding of his daughter, Sita, to Lord Ram, King Janaka ordered his kingdom to decorate the town.

    The ancient tradition of elaborate wall paintings known as Bhitti-Chitra in Bihar played a major role

    in the emergence of this art form. Madhubani painting received official recognition in 1970, when

    the President of India gave an award to Jagdamba Devi, of Jitbarpur village near Madhubani. The

    painting was traditionally done on freshly plastered mud walls and floors of huts, but now

    they are also done on cloth, handmade paper and canvas. Madhubani paintings are made

    from the paste of powdered rice. After the paintings were made with natural colours on paper

    previously treated with cow dung. The painting techniques are simple and the raw materials are

    taken directly from nature. Outlines were done with kalams and cotton wrapped on bamboo sticks.

    Today these paintings are done on canvas, cloth and hand-made paper with readymade bottled

    fabric colours with nib and fine brushes. Some of the styles of madhubani art are Bharni, Katchni,

    Geru, Godna,etc. Traditionally, natural colours were used that were obtained from plant

    extracts like henna leaves, flower, bougainvillea, neem, etc. There are some places where

    these paintings are preserved in their original form. Theyve created a unique Folk Art

    Gallery in Bangalore (INDIA) to showcase the original artwork of traditional rural Indian

    artists, mostly women. As India becomes economically more powerful, the approximately

    500 million Indian youth, with their increased purchasing power, are being greatly

    influenced by the global fashion trends. People not only need to know about these but also

    need to have the knowledge and a proper understanding of the richness and its value as

    only the youth of this generation will be able to leave a deep impression upon every person

    of the society and also on the coming generations.

  • 1. Literature Review

    India features an extremely rich tradition of artistry and innovation and thus has a very rich

    tradition of folk art and craft, as expected of any ancient civilization. The handicrafts of India

    have a great aesthetic value and adherence to their tradition and are hence very well

    appreciated all over the world. To name a few are,

    Rajput painting (Rajputana): Rajput painting is a style of Indian

    painting evolved and developed during the 18th century, in the

    royal courts of Rajputana, India. Each Rajput kingdom evolved a

    different style, but with certain common features. Rajput

    paintings represent a number of themes, events of epics like the

    Ramayana and the Mahabharata, Krishna's life, beautiful landscapes, and humans.

    Mysore painting (Karnataka): Mysore painting is an important form of

    classical South Indian painting that comes from the town of Mysore in

    Karnataka. These paintings are known for their elegance, soft colours, and

    detailed work. The themes for most of these paintings are Hindu Gods and

    Goddesses and scenes from Hindu mythology.

    Tanjore painting (Tamil Nadu): Tanjore painting is a

    traditional form of classical South Indian painting

    originated in the town of Tanjore in Tamil Nadu. The art

    form dates back to the early 9th century, a period ruled

    by the Chola rulers, who encouraged art and literature.

    These paintings are known for their elegance, rich

    colours, and attention to detail. The themes for most of these paintings are Hindu Gods and

    Goddesses and scenes from Hindu mythology.

    Pattachitra (Odisha): Pattachitra refers to the Classical

    painting of Odisha, in the eastern region of India. 'Patta' in

    Sanskrit means 'Vastra' or 'clothing' and 'chitra' means

    paintings. The concept of Pattachitra is closely linked with the

    worship of Lord Jagannath. The main content of Patta Chitra

    is mostly mythological, religious stories and folk lore.

    Madhubani painting (Bihar): Madhubani painting is a style of

    painting, practised in the Mithila region of Bihar state. Themes

    revolve around Hindu Gods and mythology, along with scenes

    from the royal court and social events from a life of a common

  • man. Generally, no space is left empty; the gaps are filled by paintings of flowers, animals,

    birds, and even geometric designs. In these paintings artists uses leaf, Herbs, Flowers to

    make the colour which is used to draw paintings.

    Madhubani painting is a type of an Indian painting which is practiced in the

    Mithila region of the state of Bihar, India, and also in the adjoining parts of Terai in Nepal. It

    is also known as Mithila painting. These paintings are mostly characterized by eye-catching

    geometrical patterns and shapes and are done with the help of fingers, twigs, brushes, nib-

    pens, and matchsticks, using natural dyes and pigments. These paintings are made for each

    occasion and festival such as birth, marriage, Holi, Surya Shasti, kali puja, Upanayanam,

    Durga Puja etc.

    1.1 History & Origin

    Madhubani is a region in the northern part of Bihar, that has a distinct regional identity and

    a language that reportedly spans 2500 years. The term Madhubani by one account also

    means Forest of Honey (Madhu-honey, Ban-forest or woods).

    The exact time of when Madhubani art originated is still not known. But according to local

    mythology, the time of its origin is traced back to the time of the Ramayana, when, for the

    wedding of his daughter, Sita, to Lord Ram, King Janaka ordered his kingdom to decorate the

    town. This great cultural region lies between the Koshi and Narayani tributaries and

    between the Ganges and the Terai of Nepal. The ancient tradition of elaborate wall

    paintings known as Bhitti-Chitra in Bihar played a major role in the emergence of this art

    form. Womens craving for religiousness and an intense desire to be one with God was the

    original inspiration for Madhubani art and from where it emerged out. People then used to

    believe that by painting something divine they will be able to fulfil their desire. And so

    women began to paint pictures of Gods and Goddesses which had such deep and divine

    interpretations that it captured many hearts.

    The paintings were originally done on walls coated with mud and cow dung. The kohbar

    ghar or the nuptial chamber was the room in which the paintings were traditionally done.

    Originally the paintings depicted an assembly of symbolic images of the lotus plant, the

    bamboo grove, fishes, birds and snakes in union. Madhubani paintings mostly depict men

    and its association with nature and deities from the ancient epics. Natural objects like the

    sun, the moon, religious plants like tulsi, scenes from the royal court, and social events like

    weddings are widely painted. In these paintings, generally there is no empty space left. The

    spaces are filled in by drawing animals, birds, flowers, and even geometric designs.

    These images represented fertility and proliferation of life. There used to be a tradition that

    the newly married bride and groom would spend three nights in the kohbar ghar without

    cohabiting. On the fourth night they would consummate the marriage surrounded with the

  • colourful painting. The Mithila paintings were done only by women of the house, the village

    and the caste and only on occasion of marriages.

    Mithila painting, as a domestic ritual activity, was unknown to the outside world until the

    massive Bihar earthquake of 1934 when the houses and walls tumbled down. Then British

    colonial officer in Madhubani District, William G. Archer, while inspecting the damage

    discovered the paintings on the newly exposed interior walls of Mithila homes. He was

    struck by reported similarities to the work of modern Western artists like Miro and Picasso.

    During the 1930s he took black and white photos of some of these paintings, which today

    are the earliest images of the art. He also wrote about the painting in a 1949 article in

    Marg an Indian Art Journal