CONSUMER PREFERENCE FOR MADHUBANI ART
SUBMITTED TO MRS. VASUNDHRA H. GUPTA
SUBMITTED BY -
GROUP MEMBERS: NISHA DIWAKER
We would like to take this opportunity to express our profound gratitude and deep regard to our
teachers Mrs. Vasundhra Harsh Gupta and Mrs. Usha Gupta, for their exemplary guidance, valuable
feedback and constant encouragement throughout the duration of the project. Their valuable
suggestions were of immense help throughout our project work. Their perceptive criticism kept us
working to make this project in a much better way. Working under them was an extremely
knowledgeable experience for my group.
We would also like to give our sincere gratitude to all the friends and colleagues who filled in the
survey, without which this research would be incomplete.
Madhubani is an folk artform which originates from Bihar and also known as Mithila and basically
made for each occasion and festival such as birth, marriage, holi, Durga puja,etc. But according to
local mythology, the time of its origin is traced back to the time of the Ramayana, when, for the
wedding of his daughter, Sita, to Lord Ram, King Janaka ordered his kingdom to decorate the town.
The ancient tradition of elaborate wall paintings known as Bhitti-Chitra in Bihar played a major role
in the emergence of this art form. Madhubani painting received official recognition in 1970, when
the President of India gave an award to Jagdamba Devi, of Jitbarpur village near Madhubani. The
painting was traditionally done on freshly plastered mud walls and floors of huts, but now
they are also done on cloth, handmade paper and canvas. Madhubani paintings are made
from the paste of powdered rice. After the paintings were made with natural colours on paper
previously treated with cow dung. The painting techniques are simple and the raw materials are
taken directly from nature. Outlines were done with kalams and cotton wrapped on bamboo sticks.
Today these paintings are done on canvas, cloth and hand-made paper with readymade bottled
fabric colours with nib and fine brushes. Some of the styles of madhubani art are Bharni, Katchni,
Geru, Godna,etc. Traditionally, natural colours were used that were obtained from plant
extracts like henna leaves, flower, bougainvillea, neem, etc. There are some places where
these paintings are preserved in their original form. Theyve created a unique Folk Art
Gallery in Bangalore (INDIA) to showcase the original artwork of traditional rural Indian
artists, mostly women. As India becomes economically more powerful, the approximately
500 million Indian youth, with their increased purchasing power, are being greatly
influenced by the global fashion trends. People not only need to know about these but also
need to have the knowledge and a proper understanding of the richness and its value as
only the youth of this generation will be able to leave a deep impression upon every person
of the society and also on the coming generations.
1. Literature Review
India features an extremely rich tradition of artistry and innovation and thus has a very rich
tradition of folk art and craft, as expected of any ancient civilization. The handicrafts of India
have a great aesthetic value and adherence to their tradition and are hence very well
appreciated all over the world. To name a few are,
Rajput painting (Rajputana): Rajput painting is a style of Indian
painting evolved and developed during the 18th century, in the
royal courts of Rajputana, India. Each Rajput kingdom evolved a
different style, but with certain common features. Rajput
paintings represent a number of themes, events of epics like the
Ramayana and the Mahabharata, Krishna's life, beautiful landscapes, and humans.
Mysore painting (Karnataka): Mysore painting is an important form of
classical South Indian painting that comes from the town of Mysore in
Karnataka. These paintings are known for their elegance, soft colours, and
detailed work. The themes for most of these paintings are Hindu Gods and
Goddesses and scenes from Hindu mythology.
Tanjore painting (Tamil Nadu): Tanjore painting is a
traditional form of classical South Indian painting
originated in the town of Tanjore in Tamil Nadu. The art
form dates back to the early 9th century, a period ruled
by the Chola rulers, who encouraged art and literature.
These paintings are known for their elegance, rich
colours, and attention to detail. The themes for most of these paintings are Hindu Gods and
Goddesses and scenes from Hindu mythology.
Pattachitra (Odisha): Pattachitra refers to the Classical
painting of Odisha, in the eastern region of India. 'Patta' in
Sanskrit means 'Vastra' or 'clothing' and 'chitra' means
paintings. The concept of Pattachitra is closely linked with the
worship of Lord Jagannath. The main content of Patta Chitra
is mostly mythological, religious stories and folk lore.
Madhubani painting (Bihar): Madhubani painting is a style of
painting, practised in the Mithila region of Bihar state. Themes
revolve around Hindu Gods and mythology, along with scenes
from the royal court and social events from a life of a common
man. Generally, no space is left empty; the gaps are filled by paintings of flowers, animals,
birds, and even geometric designs. In these paintings artists uses leaf, Herbs, Flowers to
make the colour which is used to draw paintings.
Madhubani painting is a type of an Indian painting which is practiced in the
Mithila region of the state of Bihar, India, and also in the adjoining parts of Terai in Nepal. It
is also known as Mithila painting. These paintings are mostly characterized by eye-catching
geometrical patterns and shapes and are done with the help of fingers, twigs, brushes, nib-
pens, and matchsticks, using natural dyes and pigments. These paintings are made for each
occasion and festival such as birth, marriage, Holi, Surya Shasti, kali puja, Upanayanam,
Durga Puja etc.
1.1 History & Origin
Madhubani is a region in the northern part of Bihar, that has a distinct regional identity and
a language that reportedly spans 2500 years. The term Madhubani by one account also
means Forest of Honey (Madhu-honey, Ban-forest or woods).
The exact time of when Madhubani art originated is still not known. But according to local
mythology, the time of its origin is traced back to the time of the Ramayana, when, for the
wedding of his daughter, Sita, to Lord Ram, King Janaka ordered his kingdom to decorate the
town. This great cultural region lies between the Koshi and Narayani tributaries and
between the Ganges and the Terai of Nepal. The ancient tradition of elaborate wall
paintings known as Bhitti-Chitra in Bihar played a major role in the emergence of this art
form. Womens craving for religiousness and an intense desire to be one with God was the
original inspiration for Madhubani art and from where it emerged out. People then used to
believe that by painting something divine they will be able to fulfil their desire. And so
women began to paint pictures of Gods and Goddesses which had such deep and divine
interpretations that it captured many hearts.
The paintings were originally done on walls coated with mud and cow dung. The kohbar
ghar or the nuptial chamber was the room in which the paintings were traditionally done.
Originally the paintings depicted an assembly of symbolic images of the lotus plant, the
bamboo grove, fishes, birds and snakes in union. Madhubani paintings mostly depict men
and its association with nature and deities from the ancient epics. Natural objects like the
sun, the moon, religious plants like tulsi, scenes from the royal court, and social events like
weddings are widely painted. In these paintings, generally there is no empty space left. The
spaces are filled in by drawing animals, birds, flowers, and even geometric designs.
These images represented fertility and proliferation of life. There used to be a tradition that
the newly married bride and groom would spend three nights in the kohbar ghar without
cohabiting. On the fourth night they would consummate the marriage surrounded with the
colourful painting. The Mithila paintings were done only by women of the house, the village
and the caste and only on occasion of marriages.
Mithila painting, as a domestic ritual activity, was unknown to the outside world until the
massive Bihar earthquake of 1934 when the houses and walls tumbled down. Then British
colonial officer in Madhubani District, William G. Archer, while inspecting the damage
discovered the paintings on the newly exposed interior walls of Mithila homes. He was
struck by reported similarities to the work of modern Western artists like Miro and Picasso.
During the 1930s he took black and white photos of some of these paintings, which today
are the earliest images of the art. He also wrote about the painting in a 1949 article in
Marg an Indian Art Journal