Manifest Destiny

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Manifest Destiny. John O’Sullivan Newspaper Editor Coins the Phrase Manifest Destiny in 1845 "(It is) ..our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty" . Moses Austin. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Manifest Destiny

Manifest Destiny

Manifest Destiny

John OSullivanNewspaper Editor

Coins the Phrase Manifest Destiny in 1845"(It is) ..our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty"

Moses Austin1820: He receives permission from Mexican government to establish a colony in TexasHe is granted 200,000 acres and permission to bring 300 settlers.Unfortunately he dies on the return trip to begin recruiting settlers.

Moses AustinStephen AustinSon of Moses AustinTakes over responsibility of organizing the colony in TexasAustin and his handpicked settlers begin to arrive in December of 1821This original group of settlers is known as:The Old Three Hundred

Stephen Austin

Father of Texas

Republic of TexasOver the next decade, nearly 25,000 more settlers come to TexasUpset the Mexican government based on the original agreement limiting the number of settlers allowed.1833: Stephen Austin meets with Santa Anna requesting permission for Texas to become a separate state of Mexican RepublicAustin is detained until 1835Oct 1835Fighting breaks out at the Battle of GonzalezSam Houston is appointed Commander-in-Chief of Texas forcesStephen Austin goes to D.C. as representative of Texas

Sam Houston

Commander of Texas forces

President of the Republic of TexasBattle of the AlamoFeb 23-Mar 6 1836Location of old Spanish MissionSanta Anna (Dictator/Military commander) puts the Alamo in siege status6000 Mexican forces against roughly 250 TexansDefenders of the Alamo refused to surrenderMarch 6 final attack all defenders are killedRemember the Alamo becomes battle cry

William TravisCommanded forces at the Alamo

JimBowie

Inventor of famous Bowie Knife

Davy CrockettTennessee volunteerMember House of Representatives from Tenn.

Massacre at GoliadMarch 27, 1836Santa Anna follows up the Alamo with slaughter of Texan forces at GoliadCaptured prisoners were divided into 3 groups and executedRemember Goliad added to the battle criesBattle of San JacintoApril 21, 1836Final battle of conflictSam Houstons outnumbered army defeats Santa Annas troopsBattle lasts around 20 minutesSanta Anna surrenders to a wounded Sam Houston

Santa Anna

21Treaty of VelascoRecognizes independence of TexasSpares the life of Santa AnnaSam Houston defeats Stephen Austin for president of TexasHouston later becomes a U.S. senator and governor of TexasAustin is appointed Secretary of State but dies shortly afterSmall skirmishes continued between Texas and Mexico up until the outbreak of the Mexican War.James Polk and ExpansionTwo major issues pressing during his election and presidency:Annexation of Texas and Oregon CountryPolk was much in favor or expansionCampaign slogan was 54 40 or Fight which was a reference to the dispute over the U.S./Canadian border

24Oregon Treaty of 1846Ended the dispute by establishing the permanent boundary at the 49th Parallel

Annexation of TexasTexas statehood was creating sectional as well as foreign issuesAdding Texas to the Union would stack the balance of power to slave statesAdding Texas to the Union would likely start a war with MexicoSeveral bills to add Texas to the Union had been rejected

Texas StatehoodDecember 29, 1845President Polk signs documents admitting Texas as the 28th stateBy doing so, the U.S. inherits the border dispute between Texas and MexicoTexas had claimed the Rio Grande River as the boundary where Mexico claimed the Nueces River as the boundary

Attempts at NegotiationNovember 10, 1845, Polk sends James Slidell on a secret mission to offer Mexican govt. 25,000,000 for territory to Rio GrandeMexican govt. refuses as an insult to national honorPolk sends General Zachary Taylor to the disputed area

Zachary Taylor

Old Rough and ReadyApril 25, 1846Thornton Affair70 man detachment led by Captain Seth Thornton was attacked by 2000 strong detachment of the Mexican cavalry16 U.S. soldiers killedMay 11, 1846, Polk addresses Congress to ask for a declaration of war against Mexico claiming American blood had been shed on American soilCongress declares war May 13, 1846

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December 22, 1847

Abraham Lincoln issues the Spot Resolutions

As a newly elected member of Congress, challenged President Polk to show the exact location of bloodshed of Americans

Winfield Scott

Commander of U.S. forces during the Mexican War

Robert E. Lee

Gained valuable military experience during Mexican War

Commander of Southern forces during the Civil War

Ulysses S. Grant

Gains valuable experience during Mexican War

Commander of Union forces during Civil War

Thomas JacksonAKA Stonewall

Gains valuable experience during Mexican War

Lees most able general during the Civil WarMajor Battles of the Mexican WarBattle of Palo Alto:1st major engagement of the warNear present day Brownsville, TexasBattle of Buena Vista:Mexican army casualties totaled 3400 to Taylors 650Mexican army claimed victory and retreated Battles cont.Capture of Veracruz:Important port location for Mexican ArmyGeneral Scott laid siege to the cityBecomes important supply post for U.S. armyBattle of Chapultepec:Mexican fort located outside of Mexico City and final protectionMexican casualties total 2000 while U.S. casualties total 450Led to the capture of Mexico City and surrender of Mexican Army

Bear Flag RevoltFighting in California against Mexican governmentLed by John C. FremontLed to the formation of Republic of California

John C. Fremont

Leader of the Bear Flag RevoltTreaty of Guadalupe HidalgoSigned Feb. 1848Mexico cedes to the U.S. what is called:Mexican CessionIncluded all of present-day California, Nevada and Utah as well as most of Arizona, New Mexico and ColoradoMexico relinquished all claims to Texas and recognized the Rio Grande as the southern boundary of the United States

Gadsden Purchase 10 Million dollars to complete Manifest Destiny

Joseph Smith1805-1844

Founder of the Mormon Religion

Killed by an angry mob in Carthage, Illinois June 1844

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Brigham Young1801-1877Leads Mormons to Utah 1847Named president and prophet of the church inheriting authority of Joseph Smith1851: Utah is organized as a territory with Young as the governor and head of Indian Affairs

51Donner Party87 pioneers left Missouri for California in May of 1846Had planned on arriving in California by September but were trapped in the Sierra Nevada in NovemberMexican War delays attempts for rescueReached by rescue party in February of 1847Only 48 of the original party make it to CaliforniaSurvived by resorting to cannibalism.