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MARE LIBERUM : LOCAL ISSUES WITH GLOBAL IMPLICATIONS. Honolulu Seawater Air Conditioning – use deep, cold (nutrient- and CO 2 -rich) seawater in lieu of heat pumps Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) – use deep, cold (nutrient- and CO 2 -rich) seawater to generate electricity. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Economist-052611.tif1MARE LIBERUM: LOCAL ISSUES WITH GLOBAL IMPLICATIONSHonolulu Seawater Air Conditioning use deep, cold (nutrient- and CO2-rich) seawater in lieu of heat pumpsOcean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) use deep, cold (nutrient- and CO2-rich) seawater to generate electricityGreen solutions green ocean?22NUTRIENTS + LIGHT= PHYTOPLANKTON

HonoluluSeawaterAirConditioningProject33Swac-1.tif, stage-1-photo.tif


Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)Project44otec-sm.jpg, stage-1-photo.tifotec3.gifCASE STUDY:Enhanced upwelling and carbon sequestrationSite is critical nutrient fluxCommunity succession is keyC-N-P stoichiometry is key


J. E. Lovelock and C. G. Rapley (2007)6Lovelock1.tif (LF)


Immediate retort from the science community essentially What are you smoking in those pipes?

The issue has to do with the CNP ratio of upwelled water relative to particle export

Nothings as fundamental as elemental!!J. Shepherd et al. 20078Lovelock2.tif (LF)

9Graphs of ocean profiles copied from UHMSI_FINAL_Mar18_2011_CSC edits.doc

A small-scale field test of the nutrient loading hypothesis

Karin Bjrkman, today!102007-MEPS-c.tif (scanned)MarineMicroLogo_GEN.tif

11Pro and dia.tif (LF)

Karl 200712Karlfigs_Fig_3.tifWisdom is knowing what to do next; virtue is doing it David Starr Jordan(1851-1931)



Heat exchange medium in air conditioning or energy production applicationsColdDSWCO2-rich, N&P-rich wasteSWAC and OTEC A.C. REDFIELD (1958) The inadequacy of experiments in marine biologyEcosystem manipulation/perturbation experiments are essentialComplex systems must be thoroughly described and well understood before relevant experiments can be conducted

C:N:PWe may now be ready to move!15Redfield.tif

Why cant it be done in the sea?

EXPERIMENTAL TERRESTRIAL PLOTS16aerial_plots%5BHR%5D.tifBroadbalk.tifZLimburg11a975.tifBioconring.tifFall%20flyover%20small.tifMorrow-plots.tif

HOW IS PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCED IN THE OCEAN GYRES?17Water from~300 mDIC:P = 150N:P < 16Redfieldbloom andexport withresidual DIC and PSelects forphoto-trophicN2 fixing microbesNon-Redfield echo bloom and exportSTEP 1STEP 2106C:16N:1P325C:50N:1PSTEP 3N2/CO2STA. ALOHA UPWELLING HYPOTHESIS18

19Table-for-van-Niel.tif (table originally created in Powerpoint, then saved to PDF and given to Lance to merge with images at top)OPPEX Objectives:

to verify the structural integrity and assess the performance of commercially available (Atmocean, Inc.) wave pumps

to develop a monitoring and sampling strategy appropriate for tracking the pumps and the upwelled water for the duration of a deployment in waters north of the Hawaiian islands and

to study the biological response of the system. Baseline ConditionsTemperatureDissolved OxygenChlorophyllOcean Productivity Perturbation Experiment (OPPEX)30 May 1 June 200820

OPPEX: Pump Deployment, R/V Kilo Moana31 May 2008Elapsed time = 16 min21

K. Lee / BEACH collaboration222008L&OMethods6-208-title.tifLee-1.jpg, Lee-2.jpg

BAG-I(Biogeochemistry And Genomes)Inaugural deploymentNutrient loading exp. (Karl-Letelier hypothesis)C-MORE/BEACH-MMI collaboration

Dec 2011Mesokosmos Gesamt 25m[1].tif, C-MORE BAG logos draft1-c.tif, Moore-bug_w_logo.png23NSF-SEES: proposal Nov 2011Karl selectedinaugural Kyo-Ya Fellowof sustainable coastal tourism

SOEST-led UH sustainability initiative cluster hire: 5 new faculty coming soonUHMSI_2011-2013-title-c.tif2011_sct_fellows_100px.jpg24Waste DOW Disposal MethodProtocol, Management ToolConsequencesIntendedUnintendedPump deep: offshoreDischarge waste DOW to original ocean depthKeep nutrients out of shallow lighted coastal zoneDensity change (by heating) causes enhanced turbulence at point of dischargePump deep: land-based injection wellDischarge waste DOW to a deep injection well on landN, P CO2 and N2O kept out of near-shore ocean environmentUnknown hydrology and carrying capacity may lead to coastal ocean injectionsPump shallow: offshore (Mamala Bay [MB])Discharge waste DOW at ~50 mKeep nutrients out of near surface waters of MBPlankton blooms still possible since light is present to ~125 mPump shallow-nearshore (Ala Wai Canal [AWC])Discharge waste DOW into AWCImprove water quality of AWC; convert from fresh water-estuarine to marine; remove sediment that accumulate in AWC by flushingChange in species diversity, plankton blooms in AWC and Waikk; CO2 and N2O discharge to atmospherePump to biomass production facilityDischarge waste DOW into algal/fish ponds for biofuel stock or other purposesUse DOW nutrient and CO2 as a resource for coupled food/biomass productionGreenhouse gas discharge from algal/fish pondsPump to P treatment facilityDischarge waste DOW into a facility to recover P and, possibly, CO2Without phosphate, no plankton bloom will occur; phosphate can be sold as fertilizerNitrate discharged to coastal waters; N2O, and possibly CO2, discharged to atmospherePump to N treatment facilityDischarge waste DOW into a facility to remove N, and possibly CO2 and N2OWithout nitrate plankton bloom will probably not occurPhosphate discharged to coastal waters may lead to bloom of N2 fixing microbesPump to N and P treatment facilityDischarge waste DOW into a facility to recover P and remove N, and possibly remove CO2 and N2ORemove all macronutrients and prevent possibility of bloomCO2 and N2O may still enter the atmosphere25Table copied from UHMSI_FINAL_Mar18_2011_CSC edits.doc

EARTH FREE INSTITUTEC-MORE Workshop28-29 Nov 2011Enhanced Upwelling:Science and Opportunities

Stay tuned for progress2626SEA ORBITERThe futureis today!Coming soonto Honolulu