Click here to load reader

Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System. Respiratory System

  • View
    239

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System. Respiratory System

  • Slide 1
  • Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System
  • Slide 2
  • Respiratory System
  • Slide 3
  • Division of the Respiratory System Upper respiratory system Nose and throat
  • Slide 4
  • Lower respiratory system Contains the larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, and lungs
  • Slide 5
  • Diseases of the Upper Respiratory System Pharyngitis sore throat Laryngitis infection of the larynx Tonsillitis infection of the tonsils Epiglottitis infection of the epiglottis
  • Slide 6
  • Streptococcal pharyngitis Streptococcus pyogenes Beta hemolysis on blood agar from throat swab Sore throat, fever, swelling of tonsils and neck Penicillin
  • Slide 7
  • Streptococcal throat inection
  • Slide 8
  • Hemolytic reactions
  • Slide 9
  • Diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheriae Fever, sore throat, malaise, swelling of the neck Tough grayish membrane forms in the throat from the infection DTaP vaccine Few cases in the US Erythromycin or penicillin
  • Slide 10
  • Diphtheria prevalence
  • Slide 11
  • Otitis Media Middle ear infection Common in young children Bacteria enter the middle ear from the oropharynx via the short internal auditory tube Painful swelling of ear drum Various bacteria cause the condition, mainly Streptococcus and Staphylococcus Children generally outgrow the condition Amoxicillin is used but this treatment is currently being phased out to limit resistance
  • Slide 12
  • Common cold Viral disease of the upper respiratory system Caused by a variety of viruses; rhinoviruses and coronaviruses are the most common Symptoms are sneezing, runny nose, and congestion Exact route of transmission is still not clear Viruses prefer a slightly cooler temperature hence the upper respiratory system Self-limiting, 7days or so?
  • Slide 13
  • Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Bordetella pertussis Lower respiratory system disease Bacterial toxin causes paralysis of tracheal cilia Severe coughing to clear airway Three stages of the disease: catarrhal, paroxysmal, and convalescence DPT vaccine
  • Slide 14
  • Whooping Cough Prevalence in the U.S.
  • Slide 15
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Slide 16
  • Tuberculosis Lung infection caused by the acid-fast bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis Acquired by inhalation Strong immune system often will prevent the bacteria from causing infection Weak immune system or poor general health can lead to infection and possibly death
  • Slide 17
  • Pathogenesis of TB Bacteria are ingested by lung macrophages but are not killed Bacteria multiply inside the macrophages Infected macrophages are isolated in the lungs in lesions called tubercles The tubercles can rupture and release bacteria into the body to cause systemic disease and infection to others Symptoms include weight loss, coughing blood, loss of vigor, wasting and death CONSUMPTION
  • Slide 18
  • Treatment Long term antibiotic therapy with antibiotic such as isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide Vaccination with the BCG vaccine Vaccine effectiveness is questionable; used in much of the world except the US
  • Slide 19
  • TB Testing Tuberculin skin test is used to screen for the disease Test results: + if you have had TB + if you have been exposed but never had active TB + if you have been vaccinated - never had or been exposed to the disease
  • Slide 20
  • Slide 21
  • Incidence of TB 20,000 new cases in the US each year Incidence decreasing in the US Estimated 1/3 of the world population is infected 10-12 million deaths per year from TB Antibiotic resistant strains are emerging
  • Slide 22
  • Bacterial pneumonia Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause Capsule around the bacteria causes virulence Symptoms are high fever, chest pain, difficulty breathing High mortality rate in elderly patients Vaccine is available Antibiotic treatment with penicillin
  • Slide 23
  • Slide 24
  • Mycoplasma pneumonia Atypical pneumonia caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae Bacteria has no cell wall More common in young adults (under 40) and children Symptoms are low grade fever, cough, headache that may last for several weeks Treated with erythromycin and tetracycline
  • Slide 25
  • Legionellosis (Legionnaries disease) Legionella pneumophila High fever, cough Air conditioning systems, and other water features Spread through air (aerosol), not person to person Philadelphia outbreak 1976 - 221 affected 34 deaths
  • Slide 26
  • Spread of Legionnaires Disease
  • Slide 27
  • Influenza
  • Slide 28
  • What is influenza? RNA virus that has three classes Influenza A Disease in humans, can cause pandemics Influenza B Inflects humans, less severe than type A Influenza C Infects pigs and humans, generally mild disease
  • Slide 29
  • Structure of the flu virus RNA virus Outer lipid coat Projections on the outer layer Hemagglutin spikes (H) 16 types Neuraminidase spikes (N) 9 types
  • Slide 30
  • Spikes Hemagglutinin spikes 500 per virus Allows virus to recognize and attach to body cells Antibodies made to these spikes Neuraminidase spikes 100 per virus Help virus separate from infected host cell
  • Slide 31
  • Why do I need to get a new flu shot every year? Antigenic drift changes in the structure of the spikes that allow the virus to evade the immune system Occurs on an annual basis Antigenic shift major change in the protein of the spikes that creates a virus that is new to the human population; little herd immunity; major epidemics
  • Slide 32
  • Flu shots/Flu season
  • Slide 33
  • Coccidiodomycosis Fungal disease of the lungs Coccidiodes immitis Endemic to the desert southwest Causes either no symptoms or mild symptoms, including chest pain, fever, coughing, and weight loss Immune suppressed individuals may develop a TB like disease that can become systemic Amphotericin B is used to treat the condition
  • Slide 34
  • Coccidioidomycosis

Search related