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Micronutrient Malnutrition Ismail Cakmak Sabanci University, Istanbul

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  • Micronutrient MalnutritionIsmail CakmakSabanci University, Istanbul

  • Some Major World Risk Factors Causing DeathsMalnutrition accounts of 30 million deaths per year ( 1 death per second) (WHO estimate)Risk FactorNumber of Deaths x1000

    WHO risk factor deaths

    30000

    5035

    2943

    1883.971

    1773

    320

    Risk Factor

    Number of Deaths (X1000)(World Health Report, 2002)

    Some WHO Major Risk Factors Causing World Deaths in 2000

    Sheet1

    Risk FactorDeaths

    Blood pressure7305000

    Tobacco5035000

    Cholesterol4504000

    Underweight3830000

    Unsafe sex2943000

    Fruit & vegetable intake2773000

    High body mass index2624000

    Alcohol1883971

    Unsafe water, etc.1773000

    Iron deficiency851000

    Zinc deficiency815600

    Vitamin A deficiency780000

    Occupational safety320000

    Total35437571

    Blood pressure7305000

    Cholesterol4504000

    Underweight3830000

    Fruit & vegetable intake2773000

    High body mass index2624000

    Iron deficiency851000

    Zinc deficiency815600

    Vitamin A deficiency780000

    Total2348260066%

    (000s)

    Malnutrition30000

    Tobacco5035

    Unsafe sex2943

    Alcohol1883.971

    Unsafe water, sanitation, hygiene1773

    Occupational safety320

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • Leading 10 Risk Factors in Developing Countries% Cause of Disease Burden (WHO, 2002)WHO, 2002

  • Copenhagen Consensus-2004Worldwide Panel of Distinguished Economists including Nobel Prize-Winners Top Four Global ChallengesSource:: http://www.copenhagenconsensus.com1- Control of HIV/AIDS2- Providing adequate amount of micronutrients (Fe, Zn..) to human populations3- Trade Liberalization4- Control of Malaria

  • Nearly the half of world populationaffected from micronutrient deficienciesWelch and Graham, 1999; Field Crops Res

  • Zinc deficiencyZinc deficiency: global nutritional problem in human beingsCourtesy of Dr. J.VeenemansWageningen University

  • Zinc and Iron deficiencies affect a range of functions: Immunity Growth Lower work productivity Higher morbidity/mortality Lower cognitive ability Brain development Reproduction

  • Reason: High consumption of cereal based foods with low Zn and Fe content

  • Cereals have inherently low concentrations of Zn and Fe in grain, particularly when grown on micronutrient-deficient soils

    Currently, nearly 50 % of the global cereal growing regions are on soils having low levels of available soil Zn

  • Zinc Deficiency is also Global Micronutrient Deficiency in Soils(Alloway, 2004, In: Zinc in soils and Crop Nutrition. IZA Publications, Brussels)

  • For a better Zn or Fe nutrition of human beings, cereal grains should contain around 40-60 mg kg-1 Zn or FeCurrent Situation: 10-30 mg kg-1Estimation:

  • Global Challenge:Improve Zn and Fe Density in Food Crops

  • Solutions to Zinc and Fe Deficienciesin Human BeingsSupplementation Food Fortification (Expensive approaches)

  • Agricultural Strategies- Breeding: Genetic Biofortification- Fertilizers: Agronomic Biofortification

  • HarvestPlusBiofortification Challenge Program

    Main Sponsors: Gates Foundation and World Bank Breeding new cereal cultivars with high micronutrient content in cereal grains

  • Quick Solution to Problem: Application of Zn-Containing Fertilizers

  • +Zn-Zn+Zn-Zn+ZnZinc Deficiency in Central Anatolia

  • Use of Zn-enriched NP and NPK fertilizers in Turkey following NATO-Zinc ProjectSources: Turkish Ministry of Agriculture, 2004; TOROS Tarm, 2007 Years1000 tonsDetection of Zn deficiency in wheat in Central AnatoliaZn-fertilizer market: nearly >200 mio USD/year

    Chart1

    0

    2

    26.057

    104.595

    153.366

    175.349

    197.203

    163.382

    208.603

    297.874

    305

    332

    349

    Sheet1

    Sheet2

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    GBRE ETLER (TON)

    YILLAR20-20-0-Zn15-15-15-Zn10-25-20-Zn10-15-25-ZnTOPLAMFRMALARyllar

    01994

    1995200021995

    199626.05700026.057Toros1996

    199791.616012.9790104.595Toros, Gbreta1997

    1998130167.3660153.366Toros, Gbreta1998

    1999151.6264.5719.1530175.349Toros, Gbreta, Bagfa, Ege1999

    2000167.54726.1133.5430197.203Toros, Gbreta, Bagfa, Ege2000

    2001125.17216.72521.4850163.382Toros, Gbreta, Bagfa, Ege2001

    2002159.30527.298220208.603Toros, Gbreta, Bagfa, Ege, Tgsa2002

    2003209.23442.0529.08217.508297.874Toros, Gbreta, Bagfa, Ege, Tgsa2003

    20043052004

    3322005

    3492006

    Sheet3

    0

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    0

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    Sheet6

    GBRE ETLER (TON)

    YILLAR20-20-0-Zn15-15-15-Zn10-25-20-Zn10-15-25-ZnTOPLAMFRMALAR

    199520002

    199626.05700026.057Toros

    199791.616012.9790104.595Toros, Gbreta

    1998130167.3660153.366Toros, Gbreta

    1999151.6264.5719.1530175.349Toros, Gbreta, Bagfa, Ege

    2000167.54726.1133.5430197.203Toros, Gbreta, Bagfa, Ege

    2001125.17216.72521.4850163.382Toros, Gbreta, Bagfa, Ege

    2002159.30527.298220208.603Toros, Gbreta, Bagfa, Ege, Tgsa

    2003209.23442.0529.08217.508297.874Toros, Gbreta, Bagfa, Ege, Tgsa

    inko Slfat ve inko Oksit olarak tketilen miktarn 1.500 ton civarnda olduu tahmin edilmektedir.

    Sheet7

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  • 84 86 88 9092 94 96 9800 02 04Y E A R S

    16 mg kg-16 mg kg-110 mg kg-1Similar Approach in Finland:Enrichment Fertilizers with Selenium Increased Grain Selenium and Contributed to Human HealthCourtesy of Jr. Combs, slide redrawnNa2SeO4added toNPK fertilizersfor cereals

    Chart2

    10

    220

    280

    275

    115

    115

    70

    80

    170

    180

    160

    Grain Selenium, g kg-1

    Sheet1

    '84

    '86

    '88

    '90

    '92

    '94

    '96

    '98

    '00

    '02

    '04

    Sheet1

    10

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    115

    115

    70

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    170

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    Grain Selenium, g kg-1

    Sheet2

    Na2SeO4added toNPK Fertilizers

    6 ppm (Forage)

    16 ppm (Cereals)

    6 ppm (all)

    10 ppm (all)

    Y E A R S

    Sheet3

  • A New HarvestPlus ProjectAgronomic Biofortification

    Use of Zinc-Containing Fertilizers for Enriching Cereal Grains with Zinc and Improving Yield

  • HarvestPlusAgronomic Biofortification Project Supporting Partners Mosaic Company-USA K+S Kali GmbH-Germany HarvestPlus-USA International Zinc Association-USA OMEX Agriculture-UK International Fertilizer Industry Assoc.-France International Plant Nutrition Institute-USA

    Scientific Coordination Sabanci University, Istanbul-Turkey

  • Collaborating Institutions-Target Countries-

    BRAZIL: EMPRABA-Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation,CHINA: China Agricultural University, BeijingINDIA: The Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New DelhiZIMBABWE: University of Zimbabwe MOZAMBIQUE: Instituto de Investigacao Agraria de Mocambique (IIAM); Maputo PAKISTAN: National Agricultural Research Center, IslamabadTHAILAND: Chiang Mai UniversityTURKEY: Ministry of Agriculture

  • Internat. ZincAssoc. USAOMEX Ltd.England Mosaic Co.USA K+S GmbHGermanySupporting PartnersSupporting Partners Institutional OrganizationConsortium InstitutionCHINACAU: China Agric. UniversityINDIAIARI: Indian Agric. Res. Inst.TURKEYMinistry of AgricultureTHAILANDChiang Mai UniversityPAKISTANNARC: Nat. Agric. Res. Cen.MOZAMBIQUE IIAM: Inst Inv Agr MozBRAZILEMBRAPA:Agr. Res. Corp.Collaborating Countries/Institutions Int. Fertilizer Ind. Assoc. France Int. Plant Nutr. Inst. USAZIMBABWESoil Fertility Cons. for Southern Africa Coordinating Institution

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