Modern Classification sorts organisms into groups shows relationships among them Phylogeny Systematics Cladistics

  • View
    220

  • Download
    2

Embed Size (px)

Text of Modern Classification sorts organisms into groups shows relationships among them Phylogeny...

  • Slide 1
  • Modern Classification sorts organisms into groups shows relationships among them Phylogeny Systematics Cladistics
  • Slide 2
  • Classification and Diversity Classification - tries to organize all living things into groups - show how they evolved from earlier life forms - show relationships to other present forms - changes with new information Early Systems Aristotle - by environment: land, water, air John Ray (1600s) - in related groups - short description for each species
  • Slide 3
  • Linnaeus Carolus Linnaeus Swedish botanist, 1700s used physical appearance and structure Binomial Nomenclature - two names for each Genus: group to which it belongs species: 1-2 word description Ex. Homo sapiens 7 taxa: from broad to specific Kingdom Phylum Class Order - Family Genus Species
  • Slide 4
  • Evidence for Classification Many forms: - physical appearance and structure (morphology) - other present organisms - fossils - molecules, especially DNA, RNA, proteins - embryology patterns Various organizing diagrams
  • Slide 5
  • Evidence for Evolutionary Relationships Physical appearance and structure Resemblance to other organisms
  • Slide 6
  • FossilsEmbryo Development
  • Slide 7
  • Phylogeny and Systematics Taxonomy sort and name organisms Phylogeny - Evolutionary history of a group of organisms - shows common ancestry Systematics - combines taxonomy with evolution - organized way to study diversity and relationships
  • Slide 8
  • Taxonomy sorting and naming Species individual type of organism Genus group of related species Scientific Name = Genus & species Family related genera Order related families Class related orders Phylum related classes Kingdom related phyla Domain Three Domain System
  • Slide 9
  • Phylogeny evolution history
  • Slide 10
  • Simplest relationships make the most likely phylogenetic trees
  • Slide 11
  • Phylogeny -compares structure Homologous similar structure, with adaptations - shows common ancestry
  • Slide 12
  • Analogous structures Evolved in similar environments NOT shared ancestry
  • Slide 13
  • Cladistics Tries to show evolutionary relationships based on physical traits shared by different groups of organisms
  • Slide 14
  • Cladograms More shared traits = more closely related Derived character more recent branch from evolutionary line Primitive character - older, shared by more groups
  • Slide 15
  • Molecular Systematics Compares molecules to find relationships
  • Slide 16
  • Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ribosomal RNA Have shown that fungi are more closely related to humans than to green plants StudentMushroomTulip Common ancestor Figure 15.9B
  • Slide 17
  • Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings DNA Compare genes and DNA sequences - many similar sequences = closely related
  • Slide 18
  • Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings More shared genes = closer relationship Human ChimpanzeeGorillaOrangutan Common ancestor Figure 15.9C
  • Slide 19
  • Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Molecular Clocks Some regions of DNA or proteins Change at a fairly consistent rate Can date evolutionary events
  • Slide 20
  • Five- Kingdoms System Prokaryotes are in one Kingdom Monera Eukaryotes are grouped in separate kingdoms Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists (Classification is a work in progress!)
  • Slide 21
  • Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Six-Kingdom System Bacteria are divided into two kingdoms, based on their chemical nature
  • Slide 22
  • Three Domain System One domain for all eukaryotes One domain for each of the two kinds of bacteria