Mud block construction

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A descriptive methodology of mud block construction

Text of Mud block construction

  • MATERIAL REPORT

    pg. 1

    BUILDING MATERIAL STUDY

    GYPSUM BOARD

    (WALL PARTITIONS)

    A REPORT SUBMITTED BY

    SHRETIKA GUPTA 100901039

    In partial fulfilment for the award of the degree

    Of

    BACHELOR OF ARCHITECTURE

    FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, INDIA 576104

  • MATERIAL REPORT

    pg. 2

    CERTIFICATE

    This is to certify that this material study report on is the bonafide work of SHRETIKA

    GUPTA (100901039) in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the

    degree of Bachelor Of Architecture in Faculty Of Architecture , MIT, Manipal University,

    Manipal, during the year 2014.

    Certified further that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not

    form part of any other report on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred

    on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate.

    PROJECT VIVA-VOCE HELD ON______________________________

    DIRECTOR INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER

    FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE

    MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, INDIA-576104

    NOVEMBER 2014

  • MATERIAL REPORT

    pg. 3

    .

    GYPSUM

    PARTITION AND WALL SYSTEMS

    MATERIAL REPORT

    BY SHRETIKA GUPTA

  • MATERIAL REPORT

    pg. 4

    CONTENTS:

    1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................... 6

    2. THE HISTORY OF GYPSUM BOARD ......................................................... 7

    3. THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS ........................................................... 7

    4. THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: .................................................................. 9

    5. PRINCIPLES OF SYSTEM DESIGN: ......................................................... 13

    6. TYPES OF GYPSUM WALL (ACC TO STANDARDS) .............................. 37

    7. COST: ........................................................................................................ 60

  • MATERIAL REPORT

    pg. 5

    LIST OF FIGURES

    FIGURE 1 GYPSUM BOARD WALL 6 FIGURE 2 MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF GYPSUM BOARD 8 FIGURE 3: COMMON FLANKING PATHS 17 FIGURE 4A AND 4B: DEFLECTION HEAD A AND DEFLECTION HEAD B 17 FIGURE 5A: EXPOSED / PAINTED STEEL COLUMN: 18 FIGURE 6: PERFORMANCE OF TYPICAL CEILING / PARTITION JUNCTIONS EXAMPLE STAGES

    OF SOUND INSULATION (EXCLUDING OTHER FLANKING PATHS) 20 FIGURE 7: COMPOSITE CALCULATION CHART 22 FIGURE 8: LIGHTWEIGHT SYSTEMS VERSUS THE MASS LAW 22 FIGURE 9: OPTIMUM DESIGN OF PANEL LININGS FOR CTR 23 FIGURE 10: ACOUSTIC BENEFITS OF STAGGERED STUDS 23 FIGURE 11: ACOUSTIC BENEFITS OF GYPFRAME ACOUSTUDS 24 FIGURE 12: ACOUSTIC BENEFITS OF RESILIENT BARS (PARTITION) 24 FIGURE 13: ACOUSTIC BENEFITS OF TWIN STUD FRAMEWORK 25 FIGURE 14: ACTIVAIR TECHNOLOGY 31 FIGURE 15: ACTIVAIR TEST PRINCIPLE 32 FIGURE 16: MINIMUM DISTANCE OF CABLING 33 FIGURE 17: STANDARD ZONES OF CABLING 33 FIGURE 18: CROSS-NOGGING CUT-OUTS 33 FIGURE 19: GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF SERVICE SUPPORT PLATES SHOWING STUDS AT

    600MM CENTRES 34 FIGURE 20: GYPFRAME STUDS SERVICE CUT-OUT DETAILS - GYPFRAME C AND GYPFRAME I

    STUDS 34 FIGURE 21: GYPFRAME STUDS SERVICE PUSH-OUT DETAILS ACOUSTUDS 35 FIGURE 22: SOCKET BOX INSTALLATION UP TO 60 MINUTES FIRE RESISTANCE 35 FIGURE 23: SOCKET BOX INSTALLATION UP TO 120 MINUTES FIRE RESISTANCE 35 FIGURE 26: EXAMPLES OF GYPSUM WALL PARTITIONS 60

  • MATERIAL REPORT

    pg. 6

    1. INTRODUCTION

    Gypsum board is the generic name for a family of panel-type products consisting

    of a noncombustible core, primarily composed of gypsum, with a paper surfacing

    on the face, back, and long edges. Often called drywall, wallboard, or plasterboard,

    gypsum boards noncombustible core makes it different from plywood, hardboard,

    and fiberboard. When joints and fastener heads are covered with a joint treatment

    system, gypsum board provide a monolithic surface that is ready for decorative

    treatment.

    Gypsum is a mineral found in sedimentary rock formations in a crystalline form

    known as calcium sulfate dihydrate. One hundred pounds of gypsum rock contains

    approximately 21 pounds (or 10 quarts) of chemically combined water. Gypsum

    rock is mined or quarried and then crushed. In a process called calcining, the

    crushed rock is ground into a fine powder and heated to about 350 degrees F,

    driving off three fourths of the chemically combined water. The calcined gypsum

    (or hemihydrate) becomes the base for gypsum plaster, gypsum board and other

    gypsum products

    Figure 1 GYPSUM BOARD WALL

    To produce gypsum board, the calcined gypsum is mixed with water and additives

    to form a slurry that is fed between continuous layers of paper on a board machine.

    As the board moves down a conveyer line, the calcium sulfate recrystallizes or

    rehydrates, reverting to its original rock state. The paper becomes chemically and

    mechanically bonded to the core. The board is cut to length and conveyed through

    dryers to remove any free moisture. (Refer to page no. 6 for manufacturing

    process). Gypsum manufacturers also increasingly rely on synthetic gypsum as

    an effective alternative to natural gypsum ore. Synthetic gypsum is a byproduct

    primarily from the desulfurization of the flue gases in fossil-fueled power plants.

  • MATERIAL REPORT

    pg. 7

    2. THE HISTORY OF GYPSUM BOARD

    The predecessor todays gypsum board was called Sackett Board, a composite

    material made of layers of thin plaster placed between four plies of wool felt paper.

    The manufacturing process was patented in 1894 by Augustine Sackett, now

    considered the grandfather of the gypsum board manufacturing industry.

    A sheet of Sackett Board was approximately 1/4 inch thick and 36-inches square.

    Its open edges tended to erode and the felt paper did not provide for a satisfactory

    wall finish. However, it was an excellent base for the application of gypsum plaster

    and in many geographic areas, Sackett Board became a replacement for wooden

    slat lath.

    A rapid series of improvements in board manufacturing technology between 1910

    and 1930 resulted in the finishable material gypsum board is today. In 1910, a

    process for wrapping the board edges was created, followed in short succession

    by the elimination of the two inner layers of felt paper, the replacement of the

    exterior facings with paper-based coverings, the creation of air-entrainment

    technology to make board lighter and less brittle, and the evolution of joint

    treatment materials and systems.

    In the 1940s, manufacturers sought to increase the naturally occurring fire

    resistance of regular core gypsum board. A new product was eventually introduced

    that clearly demonstrated extra fire resistance, hence the name type X. Gypsum,

    glass fibers, and vermiculite are the components of type X that provide superior

    fire resistance.

    Further modifications to the original type X were made in the 1960s. The

    formulations of gypsum board used in some systems particularly ceiling systems

    were improved without compromising the fire-resistive qualities. The new product

    demonstrated additional fire resistance over type X core, and thus the term

    improved type X was coined.

    To meet market demand in the United States and Canada, each year over 20 billion

    square feet of gypsum board is manufactured.

    3. THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    The typical manufacturing process of gypsum board has been mentioned in the

    next page. (Refer to page no. 6)

  • MATERIAL REPORT

    pg. 8

    Figure 2 MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF GYPSUM BOARD

    1.Raw Materials

    High-quality gypsum rock is extracted at quarries or mines near plants or transported by

    cargo ship, rail or truck.

    2.Crusher

    Large rocks are crushed into small pieces. At some plants,

    the crushed rock undergoes a surfacedrying process before

    going to the grinding mill.

    3.Grinding Mill

    The mill reduces small rocks to a very fine, chalk-like powder

    called land plaster.

    4.Calcine System

    The land plaster is heated in large kettles to remove most of the water from the plaster.

    5.Stucco Holding Tank

    Calcined land plaster, called stucco, is fed from a holding bin to the mixer by a screw

    conveyor.

    6.Mixer

    In the mixer, water is added back to the stucco to form a slurry, and foam is added to

    the slurry to make the wallboard more lightweight.

    7.Forming Station

    The board forming line starts with two large rolls of recycled paper or fiberglass mats. The slurry is poured

    onto the bottom sheet and is immediately covered by the facing

    sheet from the other roll.This sandwich passes through a pair of

    forming plates or rolls which determine the thickness of the board. The face paper or mat wraps around the sides of the

    sandwich to enclose the edges of the board.

    8.Board Line

    The board travels down a long conveyor line in a single continuous piece. During this

    trip, water rehydrates the stucco, causing it to harden.

    9.Cut-off Knife

    At the end of the line, a blade cuts the hardened

    board into various lengths.

    10.Transfer Table

    Here the cut lengths are turned face-side up to protect the face paper or mat, then

    fed into the kiln.

    11.Kiln

    The board kiln