Music Characteristics of Baroque Period

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Music Characteristics of Baroque Period. Stile Antico. Universal polyphonic style of the 16 th century Reserved for sacred music. Stile Moderno. Nuove musiche – with emphasis on solo voice, polarity of the melody and bass line, and interest in expressive harmony Secular usage. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Music Characteristics of Baroque Period

Stile Antico
Universal polyphonic style of the 16th centuryReserved for sacred music

Stile Moderno
Nuove musiche with emphasis on solo voice, polarity of the melody and bass line, and interest in expressive harmonySecular usage

New Vocal Forms
OperaOratorioCantata

Instrumental Music
SonataConcertoOverture

Claudio Monteverdi
First great composer of the new musicFollowed in Italy by Alessandro Scarlatti and Giovanni Pergolesi

Giovanni Pergolesi

Instrumental Tradition
Aracangelo CorelliAntonio VivaldiGiuseppe Tartini

France
Masters of Baroque Music were:Jean-Baptiste Lully - Major composer of OperaJean Philippe Rameau

Germans
George Frideric hande;Johann Sebastian BachHeinrich SchtzDietrich BuxtehudeGeorg Philipp Telemann

Literature
Giambattista Marino (Italy)Luis de Gngora (Spain)Martin Opitz (Germany)

English Metaphysical Poetry
Allied with Baroque literatureMost notably of John Donnes

ELEMENTS

Rhythm
Rhythmic organization in triple patterns underlying all polyphonic music of late 12th and 13th centuriesBegun in two-part organa of Notre-Dame school in ParisCulminated in multilingual motets of the 13th centuryLatter forms feature two or three rhythmic modes simultaneously in different parts

System of Rhythmic Modes
It is this system that facilitated the temporal coordination of polyphonic parts

Melody
Successive repetition of melodic ideas showing the highness and lowness of pitch levelMELODIC RESOURCESTheme melody not necessarily complete in itself except when designed for a set of variations- recognizable as a pregnant phrase or clause- Fugue subject (theme); expositions and episodes of a sonata (group)

Melody
2. Figures or motives small fragments of a theme- Grouped into new melodies in the development of a sonata- Fugue: carry on the music when subject and countersubject are silent3. Sequence figure or group of chords is repeated at different levels of pitch

Melody
4. Ornaments or graces (small melodic devices) used to embellish a melody- present in most European music- essential to Indian, Arabic, Japanese and other non-Western musicModes or Melody types complex formulaic structures with which melodies are built

Texture
Polyphonic style different voices are heard as separate entities and rhytmically independent of each otherCounterpoint combination of simultaneous lines of melody; sometimes equated with polyphonyPolyphony refers to multipart textures animated by the dynamic interplay of usually closely related, complementary parts.

Timbre
Monody its development is necessary precondition for most expensive performanceContinuo instruments included the lute, theorbo, harp, harpsichord, and organ (17th century)(18th century) more standardized: bass line would be realized on a keyboard instrument and reinforced by monophonic bass instrumentContinuo player- could also control rhythm and tempo to suit particular conditions

Dynamics
Elector of the Palatine at Mannheim famous ensemble that set a pattern followed by orchestras in Europe (standard size: 25 ; dramatic effects and orchestral devices)Hastened the decline of the improvised thorough bass by writing out harmonic filler parts for violasHaydn in 1791, associated with Johann Peter Salomon; conducted his London symphonies


Harmony
Rise of professional vocal virtuoso in the last quarter of 16th centuryGiulio Caccini and Jacopo Peri (Italians)Monteverdi nine successive books of madrigal document the changes in style from music composed for four to six essentially equal voices to music in which the interest lay primarily at the extremes of the textureBasso continuo technical underpinning for new monodic style; improvising chords above a single line of music

Form
Concerto Grosso principal orchestral musicCharacterized by contrast between a small group of soloists and the full orchestraTitles of early concerti grossi reflected their performance locales such as concerto da chiesa (chuch concerto) and conerto da camera (chamber concerto)Flourished as secular court musicTrio sonata typical instrumentation for concertinoTwo violins and continuo prevalent genre of chamber music

Form
1700 (Arcangelo Corelli) number of movements variedGiuseppe Torelli & Antonio Vivaldi committed to solo concerto, adopted a three-movement pattern of fast-slow-fastRitornello structure used often by fast movements in which a recurrent section alternates with episodes, or contrasting sections1750 (Handel) Opus 6 (1740) concerto grosso was eclipsed by solo concerto

Fugue
fuga Latin; means flightMusical composition in which a melodic theme is systematically subjected to melodic imitationContrapuntal interwoven melodies (texture)Fugato a passage employing fugal techniques within another formNumber of parts or voices are at least two but most commonly four, usually constant throughout the piece