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NATIONAL BUREAU STANDARDS REPORT · PDF file NATIONALBUREAUOFSTANDARDSREPORT NBSPROJECT 4215113 NBSREPORT 10476 ADEMONSTRATIONWINDTUNNELFOR BUILDINGRESEARCH by GeorgeC.Hsi StructuresSection

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  • NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS REPORT 10 476

    A DEMONSTRATION WIND TUNNEL FOR

    BUILDING RESEARCH

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

    NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS

  • NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS \

    The National Bureau of Standards 1 was established by an act of Congress March 3, 1901. Th| Bureau’s overall goal is to strengthen and advance the Nation’s science and technology\and facilitate their effective application for public benefit. To this end, the Bureau conducts research and provides: (1) a basis for the Nation’s physical measure- ment system,\2) scientific and technological services for industry and government, (3) a technical basut for equity in trade, and (4) technical services to promote public safety. The Bureau consists of the Institute for Basic Standards, the Institute for Materials Research, the Institute for Applied Technology, the Center for Computer Sciences and Technology, and the Office for Information Programs.

    THE INSTITUTE FOR BASIC STANDARDS provides the central basis within the United States of a complete and consistent system of physical measurement; coordinates that system with measurement systems of other nations; and furnishes essential services leading to accurate and uniform physical measurements throughout the Nation’s scien- tific community, industry, and commerce. The Institute consists of a Center for Radia- tion Research, an Office of Measurement Services and the following divisions:

    Applied Mathematics—Electricity—Heat—Mechanics—Optical Physics—Linac Radiation2—Nuclear Radiation 2—Applied Radiation 2—Quantum Electronics 2— Electromagnetics3—Time and Frequency 3—Laboratory Astrophysics3—Cryo- genics 3 .

    THE INSTITUTE FOR MATERIALS RESEARCH conducts materials research lead- ing to improved methods of measurement, standards, and data on the properties of well-characterized materials needed by industry, commerce, educational institutions, and Government; provides advisory and research services to other Government agencies; and develops, produces, and distributes standard reference materials. The Institute con- sists of the Office of Standard Reference Materials and the following divisions:

    Analytical Chemistry—Polymers—Metallurgy—Inorganic Materials—Reactor Radiation—Physical Chemistry.

    THE INSTITUTE FOR APPLIED TECHNOLOGY provides technical services to pro- mote the use of available technology and to facilitate technological innovation in indus- try and Government; cooperates with public and private organizations leading to the development of technological standards (including mandatory safety standards), codes and methods of test; and provides technical advice and services to Government agencies upon request. The Institute also monitors NBS engineering standards activities and provides liaison between NBS and national and international engineering standards bodies. The Institute consists of the following technical divisions and offices:

    Engineering Standards Services—Weights and Measures—Flammable Fabrics

    Invention and Innovation—Vehicle Systems Research—Product Evaluation Technology—Building Research—Electronic Technology—Technical Analysis

    Measurement Engineering.

    THE CENTER FOR COMPUTER SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY conducts re- search and provides technical services designed to aid Government agencies in improv- ing cost effectiveness in the conduct of their programs through the selection, acquisition,

    and effective utilization of automatic data processing equipment; and serves as the prin-

    cipal focus within the executive branch for the development of Federal standards for

    automatic data processing equipment, techniques, and computer languages. The Center consists of the following offices and divisions:

    Information Processing Standards—Computer Information—Computer Services —Systems Development—Information Processing Technology.

    THE OFFICE FOR INFORMATION PROGRAMS promotes optimum dissemination and accessibility of scientific information generated within NBS and other agencies of the Federal Government; promotes the development of the National Standard Reference Data System and a system of information analysis centers dealing with the broader

    aspects of the National Measurement System; provides appropriate services to ensure that the NBS staff has optimum accessibility to the scientific information of the world, and directs the public information activities of the Bureau. The Office consists of the following organizational units:

    Office of Standard Reference Data—Office of Technical Information and Publications—Library—Office of Public Information—Office of International Relations.

    1 Headquarters and Laboratories at Gaithersburg, Maryland, unless otherwise noted; mailing address Washing- ton, D.C. 20234.

    2 Part of the Center for Radiation Research. 3 Located at Boulder, Colorado 80302.

  • NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS REPORT

    NBS PROJECT

    4215113

    NBS REPORT

    10 476

    A DEMONSTRATION WIND TUNNEL FOR

    BUILDING RESEARCH

    by

    George C. Hsi

    Structures Section

    Building Research Division

    Institute of Applied Technology

    National Bureau of Standards

    Washington, D. C. 20234

    IMPORTANT NOTICE

    NATIONAL BUREAU OF STAN for use within the Government. Be

    and review. For this reason, the p

    whole or in part, is not authorize

    Bureau of Standards, Washington,

    the Report has been specifically pr

    Approved for public release by the

    director of the National Institute of

    Standards and Technology (NIST)

    on October 9, 2015

    accounting documents intended

    bjected to additional evaluation

    sting of this Report, either in

    Office of the Director, National

    :he Government agency for which

    ies for its own use.

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

    NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS

  • Summary

    A wind tunnel specially suitable for demonstrating wind- building in-

    teraction has been constructed at the Structures Section, Building Research

    Division, IAT, National Bureau of Standards. The main purpose of this

    wind tunnel is to promote comprehension of the complex problem of wind

    loadings on buildings. The specification, design, and construction are

    discussed. The close- circuit wind tunnel has a test section 1.5 ft. x 1.5

    ft. x 3.5 ft. The ceiling and side walls of the test section are made

    of "lucite" plexiglass, whereas the floor is made of 1.5 in. thick ply-

    wood. This furnishes convenience for observation. Wind speeds from a-

    bout 5 to 55 fps are given by a variable speed D. C. motor. The wind tun-

    nel was built by the Structures Section's own labor force.

    The first series of studies that were made used a rigid model and

    visualization technique. Under various approaching wind directions, flow

    separation and reattachment, vortex formation, and flow patterns around

    the model are clearly demonstrated. The effects of these phenomena on

    wind loadings are also discussed.

    l

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Page Summary i

    1. Introduction 1

    2. Design and Construction of the Tunnel 2

    2.1 Test Section 3 2.2 Entrance Section 3 2.3 Honeycomb and Screen 4 2.4 Comers 4 2.5 Fan and Motor 5

    3. Calibration 5

    4. Demonstration of Wind Flow Patterns Around a Building Model ... 6

    4.1 Some Considerations of Building Modeling 7 4.2 Near Two-Dimensional Flow Over a Low Building 8 4.3 Flow Separation and Reattachment 10 4.4 Vortex Formation on a Building Model 12

    5. Conclusions 13

    6. Acknowledgements 14

    7. Reference 14

    ii

  • 1. Introduction

    With the current developments in new structural materials , modem

    architectural concepts, and trends towards larger windows and thinner

    cladding panels, the understanding of wind effects on buildings becomes

    more important if the structure is to be safe and functional. Consequent-

    ly, a combined effort of industrial aerodynamicists , structural engineers,

    and climatologists is urgently needed to develop reliable methods for the

    estimation of wind loads on buildings. The flow-building interaction pro-

    blem is very complicated with the presence of floiv separation, flow re-

    attachment, vortex formation, and wake influence. In addition, building

    shape is not always in simple geometric form. Hence, when analytical

    treatments are inappropriate or become too complex for supplying answers

    to such problems, wind tunnel model testing and full scale measurements

    are the most promising approaches. The model study offers particularly

    attractive features; it gives the aforementioned specialists the accessi-

    bility to solve parameters involved in the problem in a quick and control

    -

    able way. Moreover, the model study furnishes vital wind loading infor-

    mation for the design of the prototype. This is the purpose of construct-

    ing a low speed wind tunnel.

    The available space in the Structures Section, Building Research Div-

    ision, NBS is inadequate to have a sizeable wind tunnel. The tunnel is

    to be accommodated in a room with floor area 10.5 ft. x 16 ft. Furthermore,

    one side of the room is used for other purposes. Therefore, tnis wind

    tunnel is not designed for detailed simulation of the atmospheric boundary