NC Scaling-Up Workgroup September 19, 2012 Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS)

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Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS)

NC Scaling-Up Workgroup

September 19, 2012

Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS)

1

TIPS was funded by the Institute on Educational Sciences (IES).

Initial research results show that SWPBIS Teams using the TIPS model with SWIS data improve in (a) the overall meeting foundation practices and (b) the thoroughness of problem identification and problem solving with SWIS data.

This power point is intended for use with SW PBIS teams as they use SWIS data for problem solving.

Some slides are animated to highlight the critical concepts/discriminations

9/18/2012

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008

We are all continually faced with a series of great opportunities, brilliantly disguised as insoluble problems.

John Gardner

Rationale

Decision making is aided by access to data

Team meetings are a major context for data-based decision making

Providing instruction on how to embed data-based decision making in a problem solving model (TIPS) will result in problem solving that is

Thorough

Logical

Efficient

Effective

Structure of meetings lays foundation for efficiency and effectiveness

Newton, J.S., Todd, A.W., Algozzine, K, Horner, R.H. & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon unpublished training manual.

Reviewing the themes and assumptions provides an opportunity to begin building the common knowledge and framework for using data for decision making via the TIPS model.

9/18/2012

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008

3

Problems & Problem Solving

Problem Difference between expected/desired current

Problem identification - Finding a difference & determining if significant enough to require action now

Problem solving Figuring out how to eliminate or reduce difference

(Newton et al, 2009)

Clarification in terms. Basically, you cant solve a problem unless there is a discrepancy between what is happening and what you want.

9/18/2012

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008

4

Collect

and Use

Data

Develop

Hypothesis

Discuss and

Select

Solutions

Develop and

Implement

Action Plan

Evaluate and

Revise

Action Plan

.

Problem Solving Meeting Foundations

Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model

Identify

Problems

Newton, J.S., Todd, A.W., Algozzine, K, Horner, R.H. & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon unpublished training manual.

The TIPS model

The larger outer circle is the system of Meeting Foundations that supports the use of the problem solving model

Meeting Foundations were taught earlier in the training

The inner circles provide the strategies for using data to identify and solve problems

This slide provides a visual as to what you are teaching for the next set of slides, you are focusing on identifying the problem

9/18/2012

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008

5

Finding Differences

Look for Difference Between

Desirable/Undesirable Trends

Where you data says you are and where you want to be

(Newton et al, 2009)

9/18/2012

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008

6

So next we wanted to know what the differences are for schools who are earning exemplar status(high levels of fidelity 3-4 on IIO, etc). Exemplar schools had suspension rates half that of the state rate.

7

Suspension Rates

09-10

State0.25647744507890646All PBIS0.22693477284669294Exemplar0.12280606682415425

OSS/student

Exemplar schools had higher performance composites

8

Average Performance Composites

09-10

State74.141666666666794All PBIS71.293373396240511Exemplar75.983333333333249

And more Exemplar schools met their growth targets..So how to we help all PBIS schools look more like our Exemplar schools? We know that Exemplar schools have the highest SET and IIO scores, so we decided to take a closer look at gap areas in the SET and IIO and to determine areas to work on.

9

% Meeting Expected Growth 09-10

State0.86981757877280252All PBIS0.86848341232227633Exemplar0.94642857142857351

SET scores across school years

Overall SET scores for the state are above 80% criteria

10

SET scores across school years

When we zoomed in and took a closer look at statewide SET data, the 2 lowest areas were Expectations Taught and Monitoring/Evaluation. While averages for Expectations Taught have been increasing, average scores for Monitoring/Evaluation decreased between08-09 and 09-10.

9/18/2012

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008

11

IIO subscale averages have gone up each year

12

Implementation Inventory

Subscale Averages

2007-08UniversalSecondaryTertiaryPracticesSystemsData7544476565512008-09UniversalSecondaryTertiaryPracticesSystemsData7648456165572009-10UniversalSecondaryTertiaryPracticesSystemsData866658777670

While IIO subscale scores for Practices, Systems, & Data all increased over previous years, Data averages continue to lag behind.

9/18/2012

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008

13

Implementation Inventory Subscales

2007-08PracticesSystemsData6565512008-09PracticesSystemsData6165572009-10PracticesSystemsData777670

Do we have a Problem?

Problem Statements

Write a problem statement that specifies the precise nature of the problem

More Ws (what, when, where, who, why) yield a more precise problem statement

The more precise the problem statement, the easier it will be to generate a solution that fits the problem

(Newton et al, 2009)

Everything is vague to a degree you do not realize till you have tried to make it precise.

Bertrand Russell

Achieving a Precise Problem Statement

1. Identify the problem

2. Define and clarify the problem

3. Confirm (or disconfirm) logical inferences

4. Write a precise Problem Statement

(Newton et al, 2009)

A different visual saying the same thing about primary to precise statements

9/18/2012

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008

17

Precise Problem Statement Example

Who: School Teams; PBIS Implementing Schools (those submitting data)

What: Lower statewide scores on Data subscale of IIO, and Monitoring subscale of SET

Where: PBIS implementing schools across the state

When: IIO beginning in 2007 with first collection; SET drop in 2009-10

(Newton et al, 2009)

Beginning to Develop a Problem-Solving Action Plan

Once you have identified, defined, clarified, and confirmed the nature of a problem, write your precise Problem Statement as one element of your Problem-Solving Action Plan

See Problem Statement section of P-S Action Plan for our state data example

(Newton et al, 2009)

Help people see how the precision problem statement fits on the meeting minute form

9/18/2012

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008

19

Collect

and Use

Data

Develop

Hypothesis

Discuss and

Select

Solutions

Develop and

Implement

Action Plan

Evaluate and

Revise

Action Plan

.

Problem Solving Meeting Foundations

Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model

Identify

Problems

Newton, J.S., Todd, A.W., Algozzine, K, Horner, R.H. & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon unpublished training manual.

Time to define hypothesis. Why are the behaviors occurring? This leads to more solvable solutions.

9/18/2012

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008

21

The Hypothesis

Is best explanation for what the data and your experience tell you

Answers the why for the other Ws you discovered

(Newton et al, 2009)

Typically hypotheses come in two flavors: getting things and avoiding things. Things include peers, adults, tasks, tangible items, sensory

9/18/2012

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008

22

Hypothesis

Is best explanation for what the data and your experience tell you

Provides a possible why for other Ws you discovered

AND guides you toward possible solutions

(Newton et al, 2009)

Collect

and Use

Data

Develop

Hypothesis

Discuss and

Select

Solutions

Develop and

Implement

Action Plan

Evaluate and

Revise

Action Plan

.

Problem Solving Meeting Foundations

Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model

Identify

Problems

Then Define & Clarify

(What, When, Where, Who);

use Custom Reports

to write Precise

Problem Statement on

Action Plan

Newton, J.S., Todd, A.W., Algozzine, K, Horner, R.H. & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon unpublished training manual.

Ready for hypothesis and solution building

9/18/2012

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008

25

Building Solutions

Keep problem statement in focus

Solutions reduce or eliminate problem

Brainstorm all ideas for decreasing the problem

prevention, teaching, acknowledgment, correction & extinction, safety

Determine which solution you will implement now

(Newton et al, 2009)

Precorrect teams to not implement every solution they came up with unless they need to, brainstorm all areas, but dont implement something you dont need.

9/18/2012

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008

26

Solutions Generic Strategies

Prevent: remove or alter trigger for problem behavior

Define & Teach: provide instruction in expected behavior

Reward/reinforce: expected/alternative behavior; prompt for it, as necessary

Withhold reward/reinforcement for the problem behavior, if possible (Extinction)

Use non-rewarding/non-reinforcing corrective consequences when problem behavior occurs

(Newton et al, 2009)

The TIPS model provides a framework for developing solutions. There are five main areas for intervention, not including safety.

9/18/2012

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008

27

TIPS Worksheet

Choosing Solution Actions

Choose the solutions that will create an environment that makes the problem irrelevant, inefficient, and ineffective

Choose least amount of work that will have the biggest impact on decreasing the problem

Implementing the solution requires action and time lines

Problems need goals so that we can measure progress and know when to move on

Fidelity of implementation is gaining momentum and focus before determining if the intervention is working or not. Make it simple to find out if the plan is being implemented in the way it was agreed. A simple rating scale works well. do not make it complicated. Make it easy to give the data and be honest (anonymous) and make it easy to summarize the data

9/18/2012

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008

29

Module Revisions

Content changes to address needs identified by statewide data

Inclusion of TIPS

Emphasis on Action Planning

Collect

and Use

Data

Develop

Hypothesis

Discuss and

Select

Solutions

Develop and

Implement

Action Plan

Evaluate and

Revise

Action Plan

.

Problem Solving Meeting Foundations

Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model

Identify

Problems

Then Define & Clarify

(What, When, Where, Who);

use Custom Reports

to write Precise

Problem Statement on

Action Plan

Newton, J.S., Todd, A.W., Algozzine, K, Horner, R.H. & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon unpublished training manual.

Ready for hypothesis and solution building

9/18/2012

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008

32

P-S Action PlanGoal for a Problem

What will the data tell you when you answer, no, to the question: do we have a problem?

Base on team-established standard

Satisfaction ratings

Easier to monitor if quantifiable

Percent reduction or increase

Absolute reduction or increase

(Newton et al, 2009)

Initially, the goal is to be at or below the national average for a school of the same age students and enrollment.

9/18/2012

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008

33

Collect

and Use

Data

Develop

Hypothesis

Discuss and

Select

Solutions

Develop and

Implement

Action Plan

Evaluate and

Revise

Action Plan

.

Problem Solving Meeting Foundations

Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model

Identify

Problems

Then Define & Clarify

(What, When, Where, Who);

use Custom Reports

to write Precise

Problem Statement on

Action Plan

Quick Review

Newton, J.S., Todd, A.W., Algozzine, K, Horner, R.H. & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon unpublished training manual.

Ready for hypothesis and solution building

9/18/2012

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008

35

Evaluation Planning Requires

An observable goal for decreasing the problem

A plan for measuring fidelity of implementation

A plan for measuring outcomes of the intervention

Evaluate & Revise Action Plan

How and when will we measure fidelity of implementation?

Strategy for gathering this information written into plan

Review current implementation status at meetings

If fidelity of implementation of Solution Actions incomplete or poor

provide additional information/support to implementers?

assign to another person?

revise timeline for implementation?

(Newton et al, 2009)

Evaluate & Revise Action Plan

When fidelity of implementation is strong, use data for monitoring progress toward goal

Team decision about success of solution is based on

Goal

Timeline & Decision Rule Rough idea of when to consider revising hypothesis and/or solutions if desired results not being achieved

What data will be used to measure outcomes of plan?

How often will the data be reviewed?

(Newton et al, 2009)

If Solution Not Working

Check fidelity of implementation

Revise timeline only?

Solution may need more time

Students must come into contact with solution for it to have effect

Revise hypothesis?

Revise solution actions to fit retained or revised hypothesis?

Some problems may require several cycles (illustrates nature of data-based decision making)

Let data guide youthen update plan and try again

(Newton et al, 2009)

Use your data as your guide!

9/18/2012

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008

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