Nuclear power plant

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2. INTRODUCTIONGenerally the power can be generated by the using ofGENERATORS. The generator can generate the power byElectromagnetic induction. By using some amount of energythe wings of the generator can rotate and produce thepower. Basically we apply many forms of energies to rotatethe turbines.In that we use this nuclear power energy. 3. NUCLEAR FUEL Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy. The most common type of nuclear fuel is fissile elements that can be made to undergo nuclear fission chain reactions in a nuclear reactor The most common nuclear fuels are 235U and 239Pu. Not all nuclear fuels are used in fission chain reactions 4. NUCLEAR FISSION When a neutron strikes an atom of uranium, the uraniumsplits in to two lighter atoms and releases heatsimultaneously. Fission of heavy elements is an exothermic reaction whichcan release large amounts of energy both aselectromagnetic radiation and as kinetic energy of thefragments 5. NUCLEAR CHAIN REACTIONSA chain reaction refers to a process in whichneutrons released in fission produce anadditional fission in at least one furthernucleus. This nucleus in turn producesneutrons, and the process repeats. If the processis controlled it is used for nuclear power or ifuncontrolled it is used for nuclear weapons 6. NUCLEAR FISSION REACTIONU235 + n fission + 2 or 3 n + 200 MeV If each neutron releases two more neutrons, then the number of fissions doubles each generation. In that case, in 10 generations there are 1,024 fissions and in 80 generations about 6 x 10 23 (a mole) fissions. 7. BASIC STRUCTURE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS 8. NUCLEAR REACTOR A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions areinitiated, controlled, and sustained at a steady rate, as opposed to anuclear bomb, in which the chain reaction occurs in a fraction of asecond and is uncontrolled causing an explosion. 9. CONTROLLER RODS Control rods made of a material that absorbs neutrons are inserted into the bundle using a mechanism that can rise or lower the control rods. . The control rods essentially contain neutron absorbers like, boron, cadmium or indium. 10. STEAM GENERATORS Steam generators are heat exchangers used to convert water into steam from heat produced in a nuclear reactor core. Either ordinary water or heavy water is used as the coolant. 11. STEAM TURBINE A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into useful mechanical Various high-performance alloys and super alloys have been used for steam generator tubing. 12. COOLANT PUMPThe coolant pump pressurizes the coolant to pressures ofthe order of 155bar. The pressure of the coolant loop is maintained almostconstant with the help of the pump and a pressurize unit. 13. FEED PUMPSteam coming out of the turbine, flows through the condenser for condensation and re-circulated for the next cycle of operation.The feed pump circulates the condensed water in the working fluid loop. 14. CONDENSER Condenser is a device or unit which is used to condense vapor intoliquid. The objective of the condenser are to reduce the turbine exhaustpressure to increase the efficiency and to recover high quality feedwater in the form of condensate & feed back it to the steamgenerator without any further treatment. 15. COOLING TOWERS Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transferprocess waste heat to the atmosphere. Water circulating through the condenser is taken to thecooling tower for cooling and reuse 16. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IN INDIA 17. Nuclear power generation does emit relatively low amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2). The emissions of green house gases and therefore the contribution of nuclear power plants to global warming is therefore relatively little. This technology is readily available, it does not have to be developed first. It is possible to generate a high amount of electrical energy in one single plant 18. The problem of radioactive waste is still an unsolved one. High risks: It is technically impossible to build a plant with 100%security. The energy source for nuclear energy is Uranium. Uranium is a scarceresource, its supply is estimated to last only for the next 30 to 60years depending on the actual demand. Nuclear accidents leads to damage of lot of property & human life