Nutrition and Exercise Eating Well and Wisely Exercise to the Fullest

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  • Slide 1
  • Nutrition and Exercise Eating Well and Wisely Exercise to the Fullest
  • Slide 2
  • Digestive System
  • Slide 3
  • n Mouth Salivary glands release saliva to begin the digestion of carbohydrates Saliva is a fluid that helps soften food for easier swallowing Taste buds send nerve impulses to the brain for basic flavor sensations: bitter, sweet, sour and salty n Esophagus Connects the mouth with the stomach Food passes to the stomach through peristalsis Peristalsis is a series of involuntary muscle contractions n Stomach Releases acid and juices that mix with food form Chyme (thick paste) A layer of mucus protects the lining from acids released in digestion About 4 hours of churning, muscle contractions force the food to the small intestine
  • Slide 4
  • Digestive System n Small Intestine Greatest amount of digestion and absorption takes place About 21 feet long Lined with villi to allow for more food to be absorbed Several enzymes are produced to regulate chemical reactions n Large Intestine (colon) Food from the small intestine is prepared for elimination from the rectum and anus n Liver Secretes bile to help break down fats, maintain blood sugar levels, and filter poisonous wastes n Pancreas Produces digestive enzymes and insulin Break down proteins, starches and fats
  • Slide 5
  • Hunger vs Appetite n Hunger- the bodys physical response to the need for food n A feeling you are born with n Symptoms: weakness, hunger pains, dizziness, nausea, loss of concentration n Appetite- the desire to eat based on the pleasure derived from eating n Factors: taste, texture, or aroma of the food n Satiety- feeling of fullness
  • Slide 6
  • 6 Basic Nutrients n Protein n Carbohydrates n Fats n Vitamins n Minerals n Water
  • Slide 7
  • Gluten n A gluten-free diet is a diet that excludes the protein gluten. Gluten is found in grains such as wheat, barley, rye and triticale (a cross between wheat and rye ). n A gluten-free diet is used to treat celiac disease. Gluten causes inflammation in the small intestines of people with celiac disease. Eating a gluten-free diet helps people with celiac disease control their signs and symptoms and prevent complications.
  • Slide 8
  • Protein n Growth and Repair of body tissues n Protein has 4 calories per one gram n Make-up 10% of your diet n All proteins are made of Amino Acids (provides energy) n 11 can be made by your body (non-essential) n 9 others are supplied by food (essential amino acids) n Complete Protein - contains all 9 amino acids meat, poultry, fish, and milk products n Incomplete Proteins - contains only some amino acids legumes, grains, nuts, and seeds
  • Slide 9
  • Carbohydrates (CHOs) n Instant Energy n CHO has 4 calories per one gram n Main source of food energy 60% of your diet n CHOs are divided into three classes Simple- sugars such as fructose and lactose Complex- starches Dietary Fiber
  • Slide 10
  • Three Classes of CHOs n Simple Naturally occur in fruits, vegetable, honey, and molasses Sugar in your sugar bowl is a simple sugar (sucrose) Most important sugar is glucose (major energy source for cells in your body) CHOs must be converted to glucose before it can be used as energy
  • Slide 11
  • FYI n A 12 ounce can of soda contains 7 teaspoons or 39 grams of sugar A gram is the equivalent to a sugar packet
  • Slide 12
  • Three Classes of CHOs (continued) Glucose that is not used right away is stored in the liver and muscles as a starch-like substance called Glycogen When more energy is needed, the body converts the glycogen back to glucose When the body takes in too many carbohydrates than it can use or store, the excess is stored as body fat n Complex CHOs Starches vegetables, potatoes, grains (rice, corn, wheat, and oats) and beans breads, cereal, and pasta are also made from grain Complex CHOs are low in fat and rich in vitamins, minerals, and fiber The body must break down complex into simple before it can use them for energy
  • Slide 13
  • Three Classes of CHOs (continued) n Dietary Fiber Complex CHO that does not provide energy Provides bulk in large intestine Helps to move undigested food through the digestive tract, prevents constipation and reduces the risk of colon cancer Whole grain wheat bran, corn, rice, corn bran, and rice bran Fruits and vegetables are good sources of fiber It is recommended that you consume between 20 and 35 grams of dietary fiber a day
  • Slide 14
  • Fats n Long term energy n 9 calories per gram of fat / 30% of your diet n Fat compounds are also called Lipids A fatty substance that does not dissolve in water many hormones, including sex hormones are made for lipids n Transportation for fat soluble vitamins n Fat takes a longer time to digest
  • Slide 15
  • Fats (continued) n Saturated-Animal fats (LDL- bad) no more than 10% of your diet saturated fats are often solid at room temperature butter and lard palm oil and coconut oil saturated fat has been linked to heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer n Unsaturated - Plant source (HDL- good) vegetable oils and fish oils
  • Slide 16
  • Fats (continued) n Unsaturated fats - Plant source (HDL) mainly vegetable oils and fish oils 2 types: Mono- & polyunsaturated n Monounsaturated - These include safflower, sesame and sunflower seeds, corn and soybeans, many nuts and seeds, and their oils. n Polyunsaturated - These include canola, olive and peanut oils, and avocados. * Both polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats may help lower your blood cholesterol level when you use them in place of saturated fats in your diet. But a moderate intake of all types of fat is best
  • Slide 17
  • Cholesterol n Cholesterol is a fat-like substance found in some foods of animal origin n Cholesterol is also produced by the liver n Production of Vitamin D n Production of certain sex hormones n Body makes all the cholesterol it needs n HDL Cholesterol good cholesterol (protects against heart disease) n LDL Cholesterol bad cholesterol causes plaque build-up, clogs arteries, restrict the supply of oxygenated blood to the heart which can result in a heart attack
  • Slide 18
  • Vitamins n Help regulate certain chemical reactions in the body n Vitamins D and K are the only vitamins that the body can make n Vitamins do not supply energy n Fat Soluble Vitamins Absorbed, stored, and transported in fat A,D,E,and K Excess is stored in the liver or skin, and may be toxic n Water Soluble Vitamins Dissolve in water and pass easily into the blood during digestion Body doesnt store them so they need to be replenished B and C Excess is excreted in urine
  • Slide 19
  • Vitamins - Fat Soluble (continued) n Vitamin A- dairy, fruits, green/yellow vegetables Maintains healthy eyes, skin, teeth, bones Deficiency - night blindness, impaired growth n Vitamin D- meat and dairy Helps build bones and teeth Deficiency - Rickets (inadequate growth of bones & teeth) n Vitamin E- green veg. and whole-grain cereals Prevents destruction of red blood cells Deficiency - red blood cell rupture causing anemia n Vitamin K- leafy green veg. and cheese Assists with blood clotting, bone growth Deficiency - slow clotting of blood, hemorrhage
  • Slide 20
  • Vitamins - Water Soluble (continued) n Vitamin C- citrus fruits, green leafy veg., potato, tomato Needed for normal development of connective tissue Helps absorb the mineral iron Wound healing Deficiency - Scurvy (slow healing of wounds, bleeding gums) n Vitamin B (B1,B2,B3,B6,B12,) -whole-grain, green leafy veg., wheat germ, fish, liver Assists with conversion of carbohydrates Assists with nerve cell function Maintenance of normal metabolism Necessary for formation of red blood cells Deficiencies Pellagra (soreness on mouth, diarrhea, irritability, depression) Anemia
  • Slide 21
  • Minerals n Minerals are divided into two categories Macrominerals- needed in large amounts in the body Microminerals or trace minerals n Macrominerals calcium, chlorine, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium sodium, sulfur n Micromineral and trace minerals include chromium, fluorine, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, zinc
  • Slide 22
  • Minerals (continued) n Sodium and Chlorine are two minerals that regulate fluid balance Dissolved salts are called electrolytes Ordinary table salt is a major source of sodium Too much sodium has been linked to high blood pressure, fluid around the heart, kidney problems, and irregular heart beat Daily sodium intake should be less than 3,000 mg. n Calcium and Magnesium Bone growth and development Muscular contractions and relaxation n Iron Helps prevent fatigue Helps build red blood cells
  • Slide 23
  • Minerals (continued) n Potassium Helps maintain normal metabolism nerve and muscle function n Zinc Needed for digestive enzymes healing of wounds plays a role in respiration n Chromium necessary for proper blood sugar regulation proper insulin activity
  • Slide 24
  • Water n You need @ least 2 quarts or 64 ounces a day. n Makes up two-thirds (65-70%) of your body n Keeps levels of other nutrients in balance n Regulates body temperature n Transports water soluble vitamins n Allows for the passage of gases, nutrients, and wastes check the color of urine to find out it you are drinking enough water (dark urine means you need to increase your water intake) n A state of dehydratio