PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION

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PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION. By: Diana Boyle, Jordan Capelle , Ross Dairiki, and Erika Keer. Basic Info. Definition : process of using sunlight (light energy) to turn carbon dioxide & water into glucose (chemical energy) & oxygen Equation : 6 CO2 + 6 H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6 CO2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • PHOTOSYNTHESISANDCELLULAR RESPIRATIONBy: Diana Boyle, Jordan Capelle, Ross Dairiki, and Erika Keer

  • Basic Info.Definition: process of using sunlight (light energy) to turn carbon dioxide & water into glucose (chemical energy) & oxygenEquation: 6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6CO2Location: chloroplast of cell2 part process: Light-Dependent (Light) Reactions, Light-Independent (Dark) Reactions

  • Diagram of a Chloroplast:

  • Light-Dependent ReactionsAlso known as light reactionsDefinition: Uses energy from sunlight to split H2O and produces ATP (form of energy) & NADPH (electron carrier) as well as O2 (waste product)Location: thylakoid membrane of chloroplast- Membrane=studded with protein-complexes- Contains primary electron acceptor- Contains light-absorbing pigments - Primarily chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b- Accessory pigments (help plants use more light since each pigment absorbs specific wavelength)

    2 types:1) Linear Electron Flow 2) Cyclic Electron Flow

  • Linear Electron FlowPhotosystem II: Contains reaction center called p. 680 (absorbs 680 nm light best)Photosystem I: Contains reaction center called p. 700 (absorbs 700 nm light best)

  • Steps of Linear Electron Flow:1) Light hits antenna pigments of PSII, which passes energy to chlorophyll a, exciting some of its electrons; it gets replacement electrons from H20 molecules, leaving O2 and H+ ions in the lumen

    2) As energized e- pass along proteins in the membrane (called electron transport system/ETS), some of the electron transport energy is used to pump H+ ions into the lumen

    3) The e- go to PSI and replace electrons lost by p700 when it was hit by light

  • Steps of Linear Electron Flow (continued)4) The excited e- from PSI go along membrane proteins to NADP+, which then forms NADPH in the stroma, absorbing H+ ions

    5) The H+ pumped into the lumen (and H+ removed from stroma by NADP+) form a chemiosmotic gradient, which is used for synthesis of ATP as those H+ ions return to the stroma by way of a special protein in membrane ATP synthase

  • Cyclic Electron Flow1) Light energy energizes an electron from PSI

    2) e- travels through ETS proteins; this pumps H+ into the lumen3) e- returns to PSI; a chemiosmotic gradient is used to make ATP

  • Light-Independent(Dark) Reactions/Calvin CycleDefinition: The process of fixing CO2 into glucose using NADPH and ATP from the light-dependent reactions

  • Steps:1) 6 CO2 join with 6 RuBP (Ribulose Bisphosphate) with help of RuBisco enzyme (Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase) to form unstable 6-carbon molecule

    2) 6 6-carbon molecules split into 12 13-PG (3-phosphogylcerate) molecules

    3) Energy and a phosphate from 12 ATP are added to the 3-GP forms 12 13-BPG (1, 3-BisphosphoGlycerate)

    4) 12 NADPH turn 12 1, 3-BPG into 12 G-3P (Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate)

    5) 2 of 12 G-3P become 6 RuP (Ribulose Phosphate)

    6) Energy and P from 6 ATP turn 6 RuP (Ribulose Phosphate) into 6 RuBP cycle begins again

  • The following music video includes some general information about photosynthesis to provide a break from slides! Sorry for the freeze frames, they were needed to sync timing.Enjoy!

  • C3, C4, and CAM plantsC3 plants: use CO2 to first make a 3 carbon molecule in the Calvin Cycle (normal photosynthesis plants)Photorespiration: RuBisco by mistake adds O2 instead of CO2 when conditions are hot, dry, brightTakes energy to remove O2 and return RuBP for use in Calvin CycleOccurs when [CO2] is low and [O2] is highC4 plants: 1st add CO2 to make a 4 carbon molecule Special structure: mesophyll cells do light reactions and C4 carbon fixationPEP carboxylase adds CO2 to PEP to make 4 carbon molecules4 carbon molecules go to bundle sheath cells. Bundle sheath cells (around vascular tissue)=specialized for doing Calvin Cycle. Remove CO2 from 4 carbon molecule so it can be used in the Calvin Cycle. ATP recycles PEP& returns it to mesophyll cellsCAM plants: absorb CO2 at night to make an acid, then break that down during the day to provide CO2 for the Calvin Cycle to make glucose (acid metabolism)

  • Cellular Respiration!Definition: Breakdown of molecules to gain energy (ATP), catabolismEquation: C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H20 + Energy (ATP)Reverse of photosynthesis Location: mitochondria (aerobic)/cytoplasm (anaerobic & aerobic)

  • Type 1: Anaerobic RespirationDoes NOT require O2, occurs in cytoplasm & has two partsPart 1: Glycolysis: splits glucose to make pyruvate and gets some energy (ATP)Part 2: Fermentation: allows glycolysis to continue, recycles NADH back to NAD + (does not generate ATP)

  • Glycolysis(Occurs in the mitochondrial matrix)

    2 ATP added to glucose turns into fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, making it easier to split, cant diffuse from cell (energy SPENT)

    Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate splits forms 2 G3P molecules

    2 Phosphates & NAD+s come in; the NAD+ takes 2 electrons becomes NADH, while P is stuck on, turning each G3P into 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3-BPG)2 1,3-BPG lose 2 P to 2 ADP creates 2 ATP; 2 1,3-BPG become 2,3-phosphoglycerates (3-Pg)

  • FermentationPyruvate can become CO2, alcohol, lactic acid (humans do lactic acid fermentation when not enough O2 is present, as in heavy exercise)Net energy gain for anaerobic respiration (glycolysis & fermentation)=2 ATP/glucose

  • Type 2: Aerobic RespirationREQUIRES O2, occurs in cytoplasm then mitochondria. 3 parts:1) Glycolysis2) Citric Acid Cycle3) Electron Transport System

  • Steps of Citric Acid Cycle:Pyruvate loses a CO2 and NADH is formedCoenzyme A combines with C, forming Acetyl-CoA, which immediately combines with oxaloacetate, forming citric acid; Acetyl-CoA falls back off to be recycledCitric Acid turns into isocitrate, then NAD+ pulls off 2 electrons, turning into NADH; this makes Co2 fall off, forming alpha-ketoglutarate, turning into succinyl-CoA; NADH=formed as CO2 falls offCoA falls off, forming succinate; some energy from this=used to form GTP (transfers the energy to ATP)FAD takes 2 electrons from succinate, making FADH2; succinate becomes fumarate Fumarate becomes malate, which loses 2 electrons to NAD+ creating NADH and re-creating original oxaloacetate(Oxes Are Crazy In Kansas. So Should Foxes Marry Oxes?)

  • ETS/Chemiosmotic (oxidative) photophosphorylationUses electrons from NADH and FADH2 to create an H+ gradient for ATP synthesisLocation: cristae of mitochondria (folds in membrane)

    Steps:NADH and FADH2 drop off e- on the ETS e- pair from NADH have enough energy to pump 10 H+Electron pair from FADH2 have enough energy to pump 6 H+Electrons eventually end up on O2, forming H2OAbout every 4 H+ ions, as they go out the ATP synthase channel

  • ENERGYATP created by ETS:2 NADH (glycolysis) 3 ATP8 NADH (Krebs cycle) 20 ATP2 FADH2 (Krebs cycle) 3 ATP

    The net energy gain (for 2 pyruvates/1 glucose):1 ATP 2 ATP2 NADH 8 NADH1 FADH2 2 FADH2

    Energy gain (theoretical) from 1 glucose for aerobic respiration:

    Glycolysis 2 ATPKrebs Cycle 2 ATPETS 26 ATP

    TOTAL=30 ATP

  • BibliographyTextbook Website in general: CHAPTER 38- Parts of flower, fertilization, male/female gametophytes, hummingbird, double fertilization, seed structure, origin of fruits, and preventing self-fertilization CHAPTER 39- Reception and transduction and response, flowering hormone, and avirulent defense responseshttp://view.ebookplus.pearsoncmg.com/ebook/launcheText.do?values=bookID::4487::platform::1004::invokeType::lms::launchState::goToEBook::scenarioid::scenario3::logoutplatform::1004::platform::1004::scenario::3::globalBookID::CM81419602::userID::1911037::pageid::::hsid::5434934bda1919e8fb46a13ad18940ba(Chloroplast)-http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/chloroplast_labeled.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.biologycorner.com/APbiology/cellular/notes_cells2.html&usg=__jt46BLhGK2kXtfsnXvEk_pehTOI=&h=273&w=240&sz=19&hl=en&start=1&zoom=1&tbnid=0GPQ6DgB0MPpSM:&tbnh=113&tbnw=99&ei=OeGWT8acB6rAiQfc4ZWgCg&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dlabeled%2Bchloroplast%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26gbv%3D2%26tbm%3Disch&um=1&itbs=1

  • Bibliography Cntd.(Linear electron flow)-http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/pix/noncyclic.jpg(Cyclic electron flow)- http://kvhs.nbed.nb.ca/gallant/biology/cyclic_electron_flow.jpg(C3 and C4 plant)- http://www.google.com/imgres?q=c3+and+c4+plants&hl=en&biw=1203&bih=629&gbv=2&tbm=isch&tbnid=HVXznDU79kIssM:&imgrefurl=http://www.nature.com/scitable/content/each-plant-species-utilizes-one-of-several-13311179&docid=ST2PXVLQNsCjcM&imgurl=http://www.nature.com/scitable/content/ne0000/ne0000/ne0000/ne0000/13311179/taub_figure2_ksm.jpg&w=500&h=384&ei=sHSdT9fpC8nMiQKx8fBE&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=828&vpy=178&dur=661&hovh=197&hovw=256&tx=134&ty=110&sig=112547099696337624223&page=1&tbnh=122&tbnw=159&start=0&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:4,s:0,i:91

  • Bibliography Cntd.(CAM plant)- http://www.google.com/imgres?q=c3+and+c4+plants&hl=en&biw=1203&bih=629&gbv=2&tbm=isch&tbnid=5Wn-TnII7WaFSM:&imgrefurl=http://ihatecreataccount.blogspot.com/&docid=u6rKD-Gr1qVHqM&imgurl=http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-8mocbeEDyAE/TfzKBj9B4lI/AAAAAAAAABA/-l-B3ghAZ3s/s1600/C4-and-CAM-plants.jpg&w=614&h=602&ei=sHSdT9fpC8nMiQKx8fBE&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=937&vpy=73&dur=383&hovh=222&hovw=227&tx=155&ty=169&sig=112547099696337624223&page=1&tbnh=122&tbnw=124&start=0&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0,i:93(Mitochondria)-http://www.google.com/imgres?q=mitochondria&num=