Text of PHY 201 (Blum)1 Some basic electronics and truth tables Some material on truth tables can be found...
PHY 201 (Blum)1 Some basic electronics and truth tables Some material on truth tables can be found in Chapters 3 through 5 of Digital Principles (Tokheim)
PHY 201 (Blum)2 Logic Digital Electronics In Logic, one refers to Logical statements (propositions which can be true or false). What a computer scientist would represent by a Boolean variable. In Electronics, one refers to inputs which will be high or low.
PHY 201 (Blum)3 Boola Boola! The expression (Booleans) and the rules for combining them (Boolean algebra) are named after George Boole (1815-64), a British mathematician.
PHY 201 (Blum)4
5 Boolean operators AND: when two or more Boolean expressions are ANDed, both must be true for the combination to be true. OR: when two or more Boolean expressions are ORed, if either one or the other or both are true, then the combination is true. NOT: takes one Boolean expression and yields the opposite of it, true false and vice versa.
PHY 201 (Blum)6 Representations of Standard Boolean Operators Boolean algebra expression Gate symbol NOT AAA A AND BAB A OR BA+B A XOR B ABAB A NOR B(A+B) A NAND B(AB)
PHY 201 (Blum)7 Our Notation NOT is represented by a prime or an apostrophe. A means NOT A OR is represented by a plus sign. A + B means A OR B AND is represented by placing the two variables next to one another. AB means A AND B The notation is like multiplication in regular algebra since if A and B are 1s or 0s the only product that gives 1 is when A and B are both 1.
PHY 201 (Blum)8 Other Notations means NOT A A means NOT A AB means A OR B A&B means A AND B Tokheim uses the overbar notation for NOT, but we will use the prime notation because it is easier to type.
PHY 201 (Blum)9 Other vocabulary We will tend to refer to A and B as inputs. (Electronics) Another term for them is Boolean variables. (Programming) Still another term for them is propositions. (Logic) And yet another term for them is predicates. (Logic and grammar)
PHY 201 (Blum)10 (AB) AB ABAB(AB) 0001 0101 1001 1110 ABABAB 00111 01100 10010 11000 Note that the output is different
PHY 201 (Blum)11 A Truth Table A Truth table lists all possible inputs, that is, all possible values for the propositions. For a given numbers of inputs, this is always the same. Then it lists the output for each possible combination of inputs. This varies from situation to situation.
PHY 201 (Blum)12 The true one Traditionally we take a 1 to represent true and a 0 to represent false. This is just a convention. In addition, we will usually interpret a high voltage as a true and a low voltage as a false.
PHY 201 (Blum)13 Generating Inputs The truth-table inputs consist of all the possible combinations of 0s and 1s for that number of inputs. One way to generate the inputs for is to count in binary. For two inputs, the combinations are 00, 01, 10 and 11 (binary for 0, 1, 2 and 3). For three inputs, the combinations are 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110 and 111 (binary for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7). For n inputs there are 2 n combinations (rows in the truth table).
PHY 201 (Blum)14 Expressing truth tables Every truth table can be expressed in terms of the basic Boolean operators AND, OR and NOT operators. The circuits corresponding to those truth tables can be build using AND, OR and NOT gates. The input in each line of a truth table can be expressed in terms of ANDs and NOTs.
PHY 201 (Blum)15 ABAB 001 010 100 110 ABAB 000 011 100 110 ABAB 000 010 101 110 ABAB 000 010 100 111Note that these expressions have the property that their truth table output has only one row with a 1.
PHY 201 (Blum)16 In a sense, each line has an expression Input AInput B Expression 00 (NOT A) AND (NOT B) AB 01 (NOT A) AND B AB 10 A AND (NOT B) AB 11 A AND B ABAB
PHY 201 (Blum)17 Its true; its true The following steps will allow you to generate an expression for the output of any truth table. Take the true (1) outputs. Write the expressions for that input line (as shown on the previous slide). Then feed all of those expressions into an OR gate. Sometimes we have multiple outputs (e.g. bit addition had a sum output and a carry output). Then each output is treated separately.
PHY 201 (Blum)18 Example: Majority Rules ABCMajority 0000 0010 0100 0111 1000 1011 1101 1111 If two or more of the three inputs are high, then the output is high.
PHY 201 (Blum)19 Row Expressions ABCRow expressions 000ABC 001ABC 010ABC 011ABC 100ABC 101ABC 110ABC 111ABC The highlighted rows correspond to the high outputs.
PHY 201 (Blum)20 Sum of products Each row is represented by the ANDing of inputs and/or inverses of inputs. E.g. ABC Recall that ANDing is like Boolean multiplication The overall expression for the truth table is then obtained by ORing the expressions for the individual rows. Recall that ORing is like Boolean addition E.g. ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC This type of expression is known as a sum of products expression.
PHY 201 (Blum)21 Minterm The terms for the rows have a particular form in which every input (or its inverse) is ANDed together. Such a term is known an a minterm.
PHY 201 (Blum)25 Another Example ABCOut 0001 0010 0101 0110 1000 1011 1100 1111
PHY 201 (Blum)26 Another Example (Cont.) A B C + A BC + AB C + ABC The expression one arrives at in this way is known as the sum of products. You take the product (the AND operation) first to represent a given line. Then you sum (the OR operation) together those expressions. It s also called the minterm expression.
PHY 201 (Blum)27 Yet Another Example ABCOut 0000 0011 0101 0111 1001 1011 1101 1111
PHY 201 (Blum)28 Yet Another Example 2 (Cont.) A B C + A BC + A BC + AB C + AB C + ABC + ABC But isn t that just the truth table for A+B+C? There is another way to write the expression for truth tables.
PHY 201 (Blum)29 Another Example (Cont.) ABCOut 0000 0011 0101 0111 1001 1011 1101 1111 In this approach, one looks at the 0s instead of the 1s.
PHY 201 (Blum)30 Another Example (Cont.) One writes expressions for the lines which are 1 everywhere except the line one is focusing on. Then one ANDs those expressions together. The expression obtained this way is known as the product of sums.
PHY 201 (Blum)31 Expressions ABCExpression 000A + B + C 001A + B + C 010A + B + C 011A + B + C 100A + B + C 101A + B + C 110A + B + C 111A + B + C This is not yet a truth table. It has no outputs.
PHY 201 (Blum)32 Return to Example 1 ABCOut 0001 0010 0101 0110 1000 1011 1100 1111
PHY 201 (Blum)33 Return to Example 1 (Cont.) The product of sums expression is (A+B+C )(A+B +C )(A +B+C)(A +B +C) Each term has all of the inputs (or their inverses) ORed together. Such terms are known as maxterms. Another name for the product of sums expression is the maxterm expression.
Maxterm PHY 201 (Blum)34
PHY 201 (Blum)35 Comparing minterm and maxterm expressions ABCMinterm Expression Maxterm Expression 000A B CA + B + C 001A B CA + B + C 010A B CA + B + C 011A B CA + B + C 100A B CA + B + C 101A B CA + B + C 110A B CA + B + C 111A B CA + B + C
PHY 201 (Blum)36 Venn Diagram A Venn diagram is a pictorial representation of a truth table. Venn diagrams come from set theory. The correspondence between set theory and logic is that either one belongs to a set or one does not, so set theory and logic go together.
PHY 201 (Blum)37 Venn (Cont.) Belongs to set True Does not belong to set False
PHY 201 (Blum)38 Overlapping sets A true, but B false B true, but A false A false and B false A and B true The different regions correspond to the various possible inputs of a truth table. The true outputs are represented by shaded regions of the Venn diagram.
PHY 201 (Blum)39 Majority rules Venn Diagram
PHY 201 (Blum)40 Truth Table for (A+B)C+BC ABCB A+B(A+B)(A+B)C BC (A+B)C+BC 000110000 001110000 010001000 011001111 100110000 101110000 110010000 111010011
PHY 201 (Blum)41 Venn Diagram for (A+B)C+BC AB C
PHY 201 (Blum)42 Ohms Law V = I R, where V is voltage: the amount of energy per charge. I is current: the rate at which charge flows, e.g. how much cha