Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood Chapter 13 Robert S. Feldman

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Text of Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood Chapter 13 Robert S. Feldman

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  • Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood Chapter 13 Robert S. Feldman
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  • Physical Development and the Senses Physical development and maturation complete Peak of physical capabilities Brain wave patterns show more mature patterns Senses are peak Most professional athletes at peak during early adulthood 443
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  • Physical Fitness Superior physical capabilities require exercise and diet No more than 10% Americans exercise enough to keep themselves in good physical shape Less than 20% participate in moderate exercise on regular basis 443
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  • Benefits of Exercise Cardiovascular fitness increase Lung capacity increases, raising endurance Stronger muscles and greater flexibility Greater range of movement More elasticity in muscles, tendons, and ligaments Reduction in osteoporosis Optimization of immune response Decreased stress level Increased sense of control over their bodies and feeling of accomplishment 444
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  • One of the Best Pay-Offs: Longevity Greater fitness level = lower the death rate 444
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  • Health Leading causes of death among young adults (ages 25-34) are: Accidents AIDS Cancer Heart disease Suicide Murder Gender and SES differences 444
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  • Secondary Aging Lifestyle decisions, including the useor abuseof alcohol, tobacco, or drugs or engaging in unprotected sex, can hasten secondary aging This can also increase a young adults risk of dying 445
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  • Violence and Death: Tracking Murder 445
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  • Developmental Diversity Influence of Cultural Beliefs Cultural health beliefs, along with demographic and psychological barriers, reduce peoples use of physicians and medical care Latinos are the least likely of any Western ethnic group to seek the help from physicians Lower socioeconomic status reduces ability to pay for traditional medical care 446
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  • Eating, Nutrition, and Obesity Most young adults know which foods are healthy, but ignore good nutrition Physical growth begins to decline Calorie reduction necessary 447
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  • Age and Obesity 447
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  • Physical Disabilities in Young Adulthood: Coping With Physical Challenge Some 50+ million Americans are physically challenged Fewer than 10% of people with major handicaps have finished high school Fewer than 25% of disabled men and 15% of disabled women work full time Adults with handicaps are often unemployed, or stuck in routine, low-paying jobs 449
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  • Barriers: Discrimination and Prejudice Despite Americans with Disabilities Act (1990), many older buildings are inaccessible to wheelchairs Prejudice and discrimination affect way disabled people think of themselves Pity, avoidance Treating adults as children Seeing disabled person as a category rather than individual 449
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  • Stress and Coping in Early Adulthood STRESS: Response to events that threaten or challenge an individual Pleasant events and unpleasant events Long-term, continuous exposure may result in a reduction of body's ability to deal with stress 449
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  • Lazarus and Folkman People move through series of stages that determine whether or not they will experience stress PRIMARY APPRAISAL SECONDARY APPRAISAL 450
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  • Steps in the Perception of Stress Way individual evaluates a potential stressor determines whether individual will experience stress 450
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  • Predicting Stressful Event (Shelly Taylor, 1991) Negative emotions are more likely to produce stress Uncontrollable or unpredictable situations are more likely to produce stress Ambiguous and confusing situations produce more stress Simultaneously tasks demands are more likely to experience stress 451
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  • Consequences of Stress PSYCHOSOMATIC DISORDERS SOMATOFORM DISORDERS COPING 451
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  • Styles of Coping Problem-focused coping Emotion-focused coping Social support coping Defense coping involves 452
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  • Hardiness, Resilience, and Coping Hardiness is a personality characteristic associated with lower rate of stress-related illness Resilience is ability to withstand, overcome, and actually thrive following profound adversity 453
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  • The Informed Consumer of Development Coping with Stress: General Guidelines Seek control over the situation producing the stress Redefine threat as challenge Find social support Use relaxation techniques 454
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  • COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
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  • Intellectual Growth in Early Adulthood Physical development slows down during early adulthood, but does cognitive? ~ What did Piaget propose? 456
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  • Postformal Thought Giesela Labouvie-Vief Adult predicaments are sometimes solved by relativistic thinking rather than pure logic Postformal thought acknowledges that world sometimes lacks purely right and wrong solutions so adults must draw upon prior experiences to solve problems 456
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  • K. Warner Schaie ACQUISITIVE STAGE ACHIEVING STAGE RESPONSIBLE STAGE EXECUTIVE STAGE REINTEGRATIVE STAGE 457
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  • How Information Is Used: Schaies Stages 458
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  • Intelligence: What Matters in Early Adulthood? Sternberg- TRIARCHIC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE Intelligence is made up of three major components: Componential aspects Experiential components Contextual factors 459
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  • A Closer Look: Sternberg 459
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  • Expanding on Sternbergs Theory Psychologist Seymour Epstein Constructive thinking Form of practical intelligence Underlies success in such areas as social relationships and physical and emotional health 459
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  • Creativity: Novel Thought in Early Adulthood CREATIVITY Early adulthood Peak of creativity Many of professional problems are novel Willing to take risks 460
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  • Life Events and Cognitive Development Major life events may lead to cognitive growth Think about the world in novel, more complex, sophisticated, and often less rigid ways Apply postformal thought (Labouvie-Vief) 462
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  • COLLEGE: PURSUING HIGHER EDUCATION
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  • Higher Education College is period of developmental growth that encompasses mastery not just of particular bodies of knowledge, but of ways of understanding world. 463
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  • College: Pursuing Higher Education Nationwide, a minority of high school graduates enter college Only about 40% of those who start graduate from college in 4 years Influenced by race and gender variables 463
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  • Who goes to college? 40% of college students today are 25 years of age or older Average age of a community college student is 31 College degree is becoming increasingly important in obtaining and keeping job Absolute number of minority students enrolled in college has increased BUT overall proportion of minority population has decreased over past decade 464
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  • College Student Attendance Trends 464
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  • Consequences Proportion of students who enter college but ultimately never graduate is substantial! 465
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  • From Research to Practice Does a Racially Diverse College Campus Make for a Richer Learning Exposure to other students who represent range of cultures, ethnicities, and races has important consequences. Not only do students benefit socially in terms of increased multicultural understanding, but their cognitive development is also enhanced. Diversity leads to more critical thinking and other sorts of cognitive advances 466
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  • Something to Consider Why might students perceive the contributions of an African American discussant to be more novel and influential than the contributions of a white discussant, even when they say the same things?
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  • Why is there a gender gap in college attendance? Will it continue? Men have more opportunities to earn money when they graduate More women enrolled in college 468
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  • The Changing College Student: Never Too Late to Go to College? According to Sherry Willis, adults return to college for several reasons: To understand their own aging To keep up with rapid technological and cultural advances To combat obsolescence on the job To acquire new vocational skills To broaden their intellectual skills 466
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  • College Adjustment: Reacting to the Demands of College Life First year adjustment reaction Particularly affects unusually successful students in high school Passes for most as friends made and integration into college life occurs Serious psychological consequences for few 467
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  • The Informed Consumer of Development When Do College Students Need Professional Help with Their Problems? Psychological distress that lingers and interferes with a persons sense of well-being and ability to function Feelings that one is unable to cope effectively with the