Plagiarism, Paraphrasing and CitationsA Learning Skills SeminarPresented byThe Learning Center
What is Plagiarism?Plagiarism. Plagiarism refers to representing another persons words or ideas as ones own in any academic exercise. Examples include: Copying information word for word from a source, without using quotation marks and giving proper acknowledgment/citation. Paraphrasing (i.e., putting into ones own words) a sources text, without providing proper acknowledgment/citation. This violation occurs when the ideas or arguments of another are paraphrased in such a way as to lead the reader to believe that these ideas originated with the writer. Presenting as ones own any work (or portion thereof) that which has been prepared in whole or in part by someone other than oneself. This includes using unauthorized assistance in preparing ones work, and acquiring written work from an outside source. Outside sources include other persons, commercial organizations, electronic sources, and other sources. Reproducing (without proper citation) any other form of work of another person, such as a graphic element, a musical phrase, a proof, experimental data, experimental results, data, or laboratory reports, in full or in part. This includes turning in work of another student as ones own work.
When should you cite?Using or referring to someone elses words or ideas from a journal, book, newspaper, TV broadcast, web page, etc.Citing common knowledgeUsing information gained through an interviewCopying the exact words or a unique phrase Reprinting diagrams, illustrations, charts, or picturesGenerally accepted factsUsing ideas gathered in conversation or through e-mailWriting about your own experiences, observations, insights, experimentsAdapted from Purdue University Online Writing Lab (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/print/research/r_plagiar.html)
How Not to ParaphraseIn conclusion, Blacks born in the United States have less favorable dietary intake and higher CHD risk than other groups of Blacks living in the United States., highlighting the cultural differences among Black Americans. Our findings support the need for culturally appropriate interventions designed to improve the dietary intake of Blacks born in the United State and to encourage immigrant Blacks to maintain the healthful dietary intake of their native country. Dietary intakes more in accordance with national dietary guidance will likely reduce the risk of CHD in all Black Americans, and thus overall health disparities among Blacks, Whites, and other ethnic populations. We strongly encourage future studies of diet and health to consider cultural differences within the U.S. Black population.To wrap up, US-born Blacks eat worse and have a greater risk of CHD than do non-US-born Blacks in the US. The study shows that interventions to improve diet should take into account cultural differences; these programs should also advocate maintaining home-country diets for immigrant Blacks. Change in diets to match the national dietary guidelines will help diminish the difference in CHD risk between Black and White Americans, helping to eliminate health disparities overall. The study advocates that future research also consider differences in the US Black community.
Avoiding Plagiarism by Answering the Questions the Right WayParaphrasing is a valuable tool.Method:Read.Consider reasons for paraphrasing (assignment or research project).Close the book.Write.Check original for accuracy and specifics.
Try it yourselfTraditionally, research studies treat Black Americans as a homogeneous group, grouping all Blacks into one category for analysis despite cultural differences within this population. However, it is well documented that dietary patterns often differ within ethnicity and measures of acculturation such as place of birth. For example, persons born outside of the United States often have more healthful diets than their U.S.-born counterparts (8-10). Additionally, other risk factors and health conditions related to CHD, including obesity and diabetes, differ by acculturation (11-14). According to U.S. Census data from 2000, 8% of the U.S. Black population were born outside of the United States, 2% were of Hispanic heritage, and these numbers continue to rise (15). Thus, it is likely that dietary intake and other risk factors and health conditions related to CHD differ within the U.S. Black population. In this study, we used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) to determine whether dietary intake, CHD risk factors, and predicted 10-y risk of CHD differ among Black Americans according to their place of birth and Hispanic heritage.
A Possible ParaphraseBecause previous studies had not done so, the researchers studied Black Americans to see if variances in diet and CHD risk factors could be found among US-born and non-US-born, especially Hispanic, sub-groups. The authors utilized data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).
How do scientists read?Normally, we read from front to back.Journal articles invite a different method:First abstractSecond introductionThird conclusionLast front to backAlso works for books
Citation rationaleWhy do we cite our sources?To avoid plagiarismTo document researchTo allow others to retrace and verify your work.
Citation BasicsAll citations lead to the same informationAuthors namePublication namePublishers information(Specific page reference)Formats can look very differentbut they all allow you to recreate the paper trail left by the writer.
An example in MLA format:the text of your paperGetting to know one faculty member reasonably well each semester allows a college student to develop a network of mentors and to achieve the very practical reward of having ready references for work and graduate school applications (Light 86-87).
An Example in MLA Format:The Works Cited PageLight, Richard J. Making the Most of College: Students Speak Their Minds. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2001.
Review and DiscussionPlagiarism is a serious offence.Paraphrasing is a great way to use information in a legitimate fashion.Good paraphrasing conveys information and shows that youve mastered the information for yourself.Citations may look different in different formats, but all have the same purpose and convey similar information.