Pneumatics Festo Didactic

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Pneumatics

BasicLevel .101 TP Textbook

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PneumaticsBasicLevel 101 TP Textbook

FestoDidacticKG, D-7300Esslingen 1

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Order no.: Description: Designation: 4th Edition: Computer Layout: Author:

0931 31 PNEUM.GSLEHRB D.LB.TP1O1-GB 01t92 D. S. Broadbent, Bonner P. Croser

@Copyright Festo Didactic D-7300 by KG, 1, Esslingen 1989 All rights reserved, including rights. No partof this publication translation may be reproduced transmitted any form or by any means,electronic, in or photocopying, otheruise, mechanical, permission or without priorwritten the of Festo Didactic KG. ISBN: 3-8127-3131-2

trces on the layoutof the book

4

Contents

Section A:

Gourse7 11 14 15 16 18 21 26 27 28 33 34 44 47 48 49 50 51

Ctr+ter 1 Characterlstlcsand apflications of pneumatics in Pneumatics review ' 2 Pneumatics control . deVblopmeht . . . . : system and Chfler 2 Componentsof a pneuthaticsystem Z2 23 Zt 25 Z6 and Air generation distribution Valves : Processorsvalvesand logicelements valves control : elements directional and Actuators working :controlcircuits Systems

Cfider 3 Symbolsand standardsIn pneumatics : ' of and Symbols descriptions components for systems requirements pneumatic =2 Safety approachto pneumaticsolutlons. . . 4 Ctrapter Systematlc t.1 Design the circuit of diagram t2 layout Circuit 4 3 Designation individual elements of system The life cycleof a pneumatic '.4

..... 55 Chapters Developmentofslngleactuatorclrcuits ........ 56 apneumaticcylinder 5 . 1 Di r ectcon tr olof . ...... 57 cylinder of acting 1 control asingle 3.2 Example : Direct . . . . . . . 58 acting cylinder of 1 5 3 Exercise : Directcontrol a double ...... 60 apneumaticcylinder 5 . 4 In d ir e ctcon trolof ...... 60 acting cylinder of 2 : Indirectcontrola single 5.5 Example . . . .. . 62 cylinder of 2 5.5 Exercise : lndirectcontrol adoubleacting ...64 5 . 7 Lo g icfun cti ons:A ND,OR.. p re . function;the t wo s s u re v a lv.e. . . . . 6 4 3 5 . 8 E xam p le : ThelogicA ND v function; thetwop re s s u rea lv e . . . . . . . 6 6 3 5 . 9 Exe r cise : ThelogicA ND ....... 68 shut v 4 OR 5 . 1 0 Exa m p le:The logic function;the t lea lv e . . . . . . . 70 valve. the 4 5.11 Exercise : The logicOR function; shuttle .. of control acylinder . . .... 72 and 5.12 Example : Memorycircuit speed 5 of and control a cylinder . . . ' ' . ' 74 circuit speed 5.13 Exercise : Memory 5 ........76 5 . 1 4 Exer cise 6 :T hequickexhaustvalve of plastic.. ... 78 embossing T dependentcontrol; 5.15 Example : Pressure of embossing plastic.. . . . . 80 control; 7 dependent 5.16 Exercise Pressure .....82 Thetimedelayvalve 5.17 Example 8 .....84 Thetimedelayvalve 5.18 Exercise I

. . . . . . . . 87 Chapter6 Development multipleactuatorcircuits of ........88 6.1 Controlofm u lt ip le a c t u a t o rs . . . . 89 6.2 Example Co-ordinated 9: motion 10: . . . 92 6.3 Example Signal overlap .. ..e . . . . . . 94 6.4 S ignalelimin a t io n b y re v e rs in g v a.lv . s re . 6.5 E xample S ig n ao v e rla p ; v e rs in g lv e s o lu t io.n . . . . . . . . . . 94 11: l va 12:Transfer valves . . . . . . 96 6.6 Example station; usingreversing ChapterTTrouble-shooting pneum?ticsystems of 7.1 Document a t io.n . 7.2 Thecauses effects malfunctions .. and of 7.3 Maintenan c e . . . . .... 99 . . . 1 0 '1 . . 101 ...104

SectionB:

Theory....;. ....... 107 ,...108 .....110 .......111 .....117 ......120 ...121 .....123 .......126 ....134 ....137 ......138 .......138 .......139 ....... 148 .......150 .......151 . . 153 ...155 ....156 . . . 162 ......165 .......167 .......171 .......172 .......175 .....183 .....184 .......185 .....186 .....187 .......189 ...... 190 ...190 ......194 ....,.. 195

pneumatics C h a p ter l Fu n d amentalsof 1 . 1 Ph ysica lp ropertiesof air. 1 . 2 Ch a r a cteristicsofair... 1 . 3 C on tr oltheory C h ap ter 2 Airge nerationanddistribution 2 . 1 Air co m p r essor 2 . 2 Air r e ce iver 2 . 3 Air d r ye r s j..... 2 . 4 Air se r viceequipment 2 . 5 Air d istr i bution... C h ap ter 3 Dir e ctional controlvalves 3 . 1 Co n fi gu r ationandconstruction 3 . 2 2 l? wa yva lve, 3 . 3 3 l2 wa yva lve. 3 . 4 4 l2 wa yva lve. 3 . 5 4lSw ayvalve. 3 . 6 Sl? wa yva lve, 3.7 Reliable operation valves of C h a p ter 4Va lves 4 . 1 No n - r e turnvalves 4.2 Flowcontrol valves 4 . 3 Pr e ssu r e valves 4 . 4 Co m b in a tionalvalves

C h ap ter 5Actuatorsandoutputdevices 5 . 1 Sin g le a ctingcylinder 5 . 2 D ou b le a ctingcylinder 5 . 3 R od le sscylinder .. 5 . 4 C yl i nd e r performancecharacteris t ic s ...:.. 5 . 5 M otor s 5 . 6 R otar ya ctuators 5 . 7 l nd ica tor s .... . . C h apter 6 systems 6 . 1 Se le cti on comparisonmediums and of 6 . 2 C on tr olsystemdevelopment..... 6 . 3 Fie ld systems(actoric) 6 . 4 Sp e cia l its un andassemblies

C: SectionSo luti on s

Solutions....199 ......217 .......221

L i s to f stan d a r dsand references.. Index

Notesregarding concept the behind textbook the Thistextbook formspartof F,esto Didactic's Learning for lt System Automation. has beendesigned trainihg for courses and is also suitable the purpose for of self-tuition. Thebookis divided thefollowing into sections: PartA: Course PartB: Theory PartC: Solutions the exercises to PartA: Course The aim of the courseis to providestudents with the information whichthey will require orderto gaina thorough in understanding the subject of concerned. This is achieved Thesegradually usingbothexamples exercises. and increase in complexity and the studentther:efore advisedto work throughthem in is sequence. whichare dealtwith in greater Subjects depthin the Theorysection markedin the text. are PartB: Theory This section contains basictheoryrelating the subject the to area in question. Topicsare set out in a logicalmanner. The studentcan eitherwork through purposes. this section chapter chapter use it for reference by or PartC: Solutions Thispartcontains solutions the exercises PartA. the to in A comprehensive indexis provided the end of the textbook. at programme. Thistextbook maybe incorporated an existing into training

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Chapter1 Characteristics and applications pneumatics of

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Pneumatics for some considerable has time been used for carryingout the mechanical simplest tasks, but in morerecent timeshas playeda moreimporpneumatic tant rolein the development for of technology automation. ln the majority applications of compressed is usedfor one or more of the air following functions: . The useof sensors determine to statusof processes . Informationprocessing . Switching actuators meansof finalcontrol of by elements . Carrying work out pneumatics mostcommonly Before 1950s, the was medium usedas a working in the form of storedenergy. Duringthe 1950sthe sensingand processing roles developedin parallelwith working requirements. This development enabledworkingoperations be controlled to using sensorsfor the measureprocesmentof machine statesand conditions. The development sensors, of sorsand actuators led to the introduction pneumatic has systems. of In parallel with the introduction total systems, individual have of the elements furtherdeveloped with changes material, in manufacturing designprocesand ses. The pneumatic has a significant as a lineardrive unit,due to its cylinder role relatively low cost, ease of installation, simple and robustconstruction and readyavailability various in sizesand strokelengths. general The pneumatic cylinder the following has characteristics: . Diameters . Stroke lengths . Available forces . Piston speed 6 to 320 mm 1 to 2000mm N 2 to 50000 0.02to 1 m/s

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Pneumatic components perform foilowing can the typesof motion: . Linear . Swivel . Rotary\D

Someindustrial applications employing pneumatics listed are berow: . General methods material of handling: . Clamping . Shifting . Positioning . Orienting . Generalapplications: . Packaging . Feeding . Metering . Dooror chutecontrol . Transfer materials of . Turning and inverting parts of . Sorting parts of . Stacking components of . Stamping embossing components and of

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Pneumatics usedin carrying machining working is out and operations. Forexample: . Drilling . Turning . Milling . Sawing . Finishing . Forming . Quality control

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tAdvantages distinguishing and characteristics compressed of air; Availability: Transport; Storage: Air is available practically everywhere unlimited in quantities. Ajr can be easilytransported pipelines, in evenoverlarge distances. A compressor neednot be in continuous operation. Compressed can be storedin a reservoir removed air and as required. addition, reservoir be transportable. ln the can Compressed is relatively air insensitive temperature to fluctuations. This ensures reliable operation, evenunder extreme conditions. 1.1. Pneumatlcs revlew In

Temperature :

proof: Compressed offersminimalrisk explosion fire, Explosion air of or henceno expensive protection against exprosion required. is Cleanliness : Unlubricated exhaust is clean.Any unlubricated which air air escapes through leaking pipesor components doesnot causecontamination. is an important This pointwhen considering food,woodandtextileindustries. the The operating components of simpleconstruction are

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