PSY 368 Human Memory Development of Memory. Our focus so far elderlyinfancy childhood adulthood This Week.

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    17-Dec-2015

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  • Slide 1
  • PSY 368 Human Memory Development of Memory
  • Slide 2
  • Our focus so far elderlyinfancy childhood adulthood This Week
  • Slide 3
  • Development of Memory Outline for this week Studying infants & children Basic Processes and Capacities Methodological issues Memory in the Elderly What abilities decline? Why do they decline? Recognition and Recall Implicit and Explicit memory Episodic memory Standard Model Sensory STM/WM LTM
  • Slide 4
  • Development of Memory Outline for this week Studying infants & children Basic Processes and Capacities Methodological issues Memory in the Elderly What abilities decline? Why do they decline? How do we test infants? Non-Nutritive Sucking Habituation/Dishabituation Conditioning
  • Slide 5
  • Development of Memory Outline for this week Studying infants & children Basic Processes and Capacities Methodological issues Memory in the Elderly What abilities decline? Why do they decline? Will cover next time
  • Slide 6
  • DeCasper & Spence (1986) Had mothers read stories everyday to fetuses during final 6 weeks of pregnancy After babies were born tested to see if babies preferred familiar story over novel one Results: babies recognized and preferred the familiar stories (most-likely the prosody, of the story) Non-Nutritive Sucking method (infants will adjust sucking rate to get preferred stimuli) Studying Infants Recognition Memory in infants
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  • Recognition Memory in the womb We experience language before we are even born DeCasper, et al (1994) Fetal heart monitor Studying Fetuses
  • Slide 8
  • We experience language before we are even born DeCasper, et al (1994) Same rhyme Different rhyme Had mothers read rhymes everyday to fetuses during 34-38 weeks of pregnancy After 38th week, two rhymes were played to the fetuses (but mom couldnt hear it) Fetal heart monitor Studying Fetuses Recognition Memory in the womb
  • Slide 9
  • We experience language before we are even born DeCasper, et al (1994) Same rhyme Different rhyme Had mothers read rhymes everyday to fetuses during 34-38 weeks of pregnancy After 38th week, two rhymes were played to the fetuses (but mom couldnt hear it) Fetal heart monitor Studying Fetuses Recognition Memory in the womb
  • Slide 10
  • We experience language before we are even born DeCasper, et al (1994) Had mothers read rhymes everyday to fetuses during 34-38 weeks of pregnancy After 38th week, two rhymes were played to the fetuses (but mom couldnt hear it) Same rhyme Different rhyme Decreased fetal heart-rate Baby learned something about the rhyme before it was born! Fetal heart monitor Studying Fetuses Recognition Memory in the womb
  • Slide 11
  • Studying Infants 2 weeks post-habituation: 2-month-olds prefer to look at a novel scene or object Habituation technique Recognition Memory in infants
  • Slide 12
  • Studying Infants Habituation technique Habituation/Dis-habituationHabituation/Dis-habituation: familiarize with A then present A or B if infant dis-habituates to B, then infant remembers A and can discriminate between A and B Preference for novelty: familiarize with A then present A and B together if infant shows a preference for B, then infant remembers A and prefers B because it is a novel stimulus The basic idea is that if the infant prefers, or responds differently to the novel stimulus, it remembers the original stimulus.
  • Slide 13
  • Studying Infants Recognition Strauss & Cohen (1978): 5-month-olds ability to habituate to size, color, form & orientation 5-month-olds were habituated to a large, black arrow pointing down shown new object, e.g., large white arrow pointing down (measure preference/looking time) Results: Immediate: remembered all 4 attributes; 15 minutes later: remembered form and colour; 24 hours later: remembered only the form -Thus, infants have a fairly durable memory of the object seen but other properties less enduring
  • Slide 14
  • Studying Young Kids Recognition Perlmutter & Lange (1978) - 2 year olds recognition of pictures was better than adults Brown & Scott (1971) 4-year-olds picture memory was at 100% accuracy; even 25 items between 2 exposures Sophian & Stigler (1981) tested young preschoolers (2y11m), older preschoolers (4y6m), 1 st graders (6y3m) & college students recognition memory for faces. Found no change between the preschool ages, but improvement over older groups Recognition is generally quite good very early in development
  • Slide 15
  • Studying Infants Recall Object permanence the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched 8-12 months will: search for hidden objects show anxiety in parents absence Maybe even earlier (video)video
  • Slide 16
  • Studying Infants Recall Deferred Imitation (e.g., Meltzoff, 1985, 1995 & Bauer, 1997) the ability to imitate a previously-seen behaviour hours or days later Experimenter demonstrates a novel use of an unfamiliar toy. After a delay, infants are given the toy. If the infants display the novel behavior more than infants in a control group, they must remember the action they observed earlier
  • Slide 17
  • Studying Infants Recall Deferred Imitation (e.g., Meltzoff, 1985, 1995 & Bauer, 1997) Results: Range of activities and the time over which they remember and imitate grows in the first year By 9-months : 24 hours later can imitate naturally occurring behaviors and those that are arbitrary, such as pressing a button to make a beeping sound By 14-months : can imitate behaviors after even more time has passed, and will imitate unusual activities, such as viewing an adult press their forehead on a panel to make a light go on up to 4 months after seeing an adult do this Thus, at this age, events are represented in long term memory and can be accessed months later.
  • Slide 18
  • Developing Memory Implicit and Explicit Memory Much of the infant research into memory examines implicit memory Rovee-Collier et al. conditioning experiments Implicit memory in older kids Hayes & Hennesey Fragmented picture task Newcombe & Fox Picture recognition But with children who are old enough to talk, research has focused on explicit memory.
  • Slide 19
  • Studying Infants Study with infants as young as 2 months old Procedure (video)video A ribbon is tied between a mobile and an infants leg Learn to kick to move mobile Reactivation treatment Questions: How long can infants remember? What is the role of context? Conditioning technique Rovee-Collier: studies using mobile conjugate reinforcement procedure
  • Slide 20
  • Studying Infants How long? delay before test: 48 hours to 2 weeks Results No forgetting for up to 8 days Kicking behaviour will be forgotten within 2 weeks if the event is not experienced again, but infants can retrieve the memory if it is appropriately cued Conditioning technique Rovee-Collier: studies using mobile conjugate reinforcement procedure
  • Slide 21
  • Studying Infants Role of context? Study with 6-month-olds, 24 hour delay before test Sides of playpen were draped with distinctive cloth At test one group had same cloth surrounding playpen, other group had a different cloth Results "no change" group had a higher retention rate Conditioning technique Rovee-Collier: studies using mobile conjugate reinforcement procedure
  • Slide 22
  • Studying Infants Conditioning technique Rovee-Collier: studies using mobile conjugate reinforcement procedure Conclusions Infants do, therefore, have some implicit/procedural memory context plays a role in reinstating memory Based on 6 more experiments further investigating the role of context, Rovee-Collier et el. concluded that infants don't respond to the context "as a whole", but rather to specific components of the context
  • Slide 23
  • Studying Young Kids Implicit Memory Hayes & Hennesey (1996) study with 4- 5- and 10-year olds Children were shown fragmented pictures and asked to identify them. The same fragmented pictures along with some new ones. Results: Older children identified more pictures BUT the priming effect (the degree to which old pictures were identified faster than new pictures) was the same for all ages. Thus, with age, there was no improvement in implicit memory.
  • Slide 24
  • Studying Young Kids Implicit Memory Newcombe & Fox (1994) study with 9- & 10-year-olds: Children were shown pictures of preschoolers (some were former classmates) Measure of explicit memory: they were asked "Is this a former classmate? Measure of implicit memory: changes in electrical conductance of the skin Results: "performance" was poor (but greater than chance) on both explicit and implicit measures BUT there was no difference in skin conductance between the children who did well on the explicit measure and those who did poorly Thus, children who had poor explicit memory still implicitly "recognized" classmates just as much as children who had relatively good explicit memory.
  • Slide 25
  • Developing Memory Episodic Memory Infantile amnesia - few episodic memories before age 3-4
  • Slide 26
  • Studying Young Kids Episodic Memory: Infantile amnesia - few episodic memories before age 3-4 Children as young as 2 are able to talk about events that happened in the past (Fivush & Hamond, 1990; Nelson, 1984; Nelson & Ross, 1980) By 3 or 4 years of age, children can answer questions with fewer prompts (Hamond & Fivush, 1991) Event memory may be explained in terms of scripts, a knowledge structure containing information about the typical way in which an event happens
  • Slide 27
  • Developing Memory Episodic Memory Infantile amnesia - few episodic memories before age 3-4 Several explanations have been proposed: Not enough language to successfully store memories Sense of self not developed enough, so no autobiographical timeline to use to organize memories Unable to make use of durable gist memories
  • Slide 28
  • Studying Young Kids Simcock & Hayne (2002) Magic shrinking machine In goes big toy, out comes identical small toy Later asked to describe what happened, identify pictures, and re-enact the event Episodic Memory: Autobiographical memories
  • Slide 29
  • Studying Young Kids Simcock & Hayne (2002) Results Youngest groups recalled less than older groups Longer delays led to worse recall Episodic Memory: Autobiographical memories Differences between the three measures. Worst recall on verbal task, best on re-enactments. Used words only known at the original session to describe the task Conclusions: Children have memories of early events, but may not have the language skills and knowledge to encode them
  • Slide 30
  • Studying Young Kids Iconic memory Sheingold (1973) replicated Sperling with kids (5, 8, 11, and adults) Array of 7 shapes; central pointer flashed briefly (100 msec), then pointer what was pointer pointing at? varied delay between pointer and array: simultaneous, 0 (right after disappeared), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 500, 1000 msec
  • Slide 31
  • Studying Young Kids Iconic memory Sheingold (1973) replicated Sperling with kids (5, 8, 11, and adults) Results: at 50 msec delay, no age effects Conclusion: 5-years-olds can hold lots of info in sensory memory capacity of sensory memory doesnt develop There were changes at other delays, suggesting differences in other stages of processing
  • Slide 32
  • Developing Memory Short-term memory Span Serial position Encoding strategies Rehearsal Organization Elaboration Attention
  • Slide 33
  • Developing Memory Short-term memory : Span The number of items that children can recall on the digit span task increases from around 2.5 at age 2, to 7 in adulthood
  • Slide 34
  • Developing Memory Short-term memory : Span According to proponents of the working memory model, the duration of the phonological loop is a key constraint of how much information can be remembered Correlation between speech rate and memory span But Cowan (1997), suggests that search time may also play a role (reflected in pauses btwn words) Hulme et al (1984)
  • Slide 35
  • Developing Memory Short-term memory : Serial position curve Early ------------------------------------------------------ Late (Primacy) (Recency) Low Recall High Recall 14+ years old 9-year-olds 6-year olds 6-years-olds show recency but not primacy, 9-year-olds show some primacy May reflect different encoding strategies
  • Slide 36
  • Developing Memory Short-term memory : Encoding strategies Young children seem to be less efficient at encoding information (little or no primacy), probably due to differences in strategy usage Rehearsal: repetitively naming information that is to be remembered Organization: information to be remembered should be structured so that related information is placed together Elaboration: embellishing information to be remembered to make it more memorable
  • Slide 37
  • Developing Memory Short-term memory : Rehearsal Flavell, Beach, & Chinsky (1966) Presented kindergarten, 2nd, and 5th grade children with sets of pictures of common objects and asked them to remember them. During 15-sec. delay before each recall test, observed children's lip movements
  • Slide 38
  • Developing Memory Short-term memory : Rehearsal Flavell, Beach, & Chinsky (1966) Results Both recall and rehearsal increased with age 10% of kindergarteners ---> 85% of grade 5 children. Also, within a grade level, children who rehearsed more recalled more. Conclusions Rehearsal increases with age, and the frequency of rehearsal determines memory performance
  • Slide 39
  • Developing Memory Short-term memory : Rehearsal Ornstein, Naus, & Liberty (1975) Used an overt rehearsal procedure with 3rd, 6th, & 8th grade children: Children were presented with a series of words, and told that they must repeat the most recently-presented word during the interstimulus interval (ISI), and that if they wish they may also practice other words during the ISI.
  • Slide 40
  • Developing Memory Desk, desk, desk, deskDesk, man, yard, cat, man, desk, cat, yard 4. Desk Man, man, man, man, man Man, cat, yard, man, cat, yard 3. Man Cat, cat, cat, cat, yardCat, yard, yard, cat2. Cat Yard, yard, yard, yardYard, yard, yard1. Yard Third-grade studentEighth-grade studentWord Presented Short-term memory : Rehearsal - type changes with age Ornstein, Naus, & Liberty (1975)
  • Slide 41
  • Developing Memory Short-term memory : Organization - organizing the items we want to remember into meaningful categories Salatas & Flavell (1976) Presented...

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