PSY 368 Human Memory Imagery & Mnemonics. Imagery Effects Theories Cases of superior memory Ways to improve you memory Brief outline for week

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  • Slide 1
  • PSY 368 Human Memory Imagery & Mnemonics
  • Slide 2
  • Imagery Effects Theories Cases of superior memory Ways to improve you memory Brief outline for week
  • Slide 3
  • Demo: Remembering a shopping list Route Classroom Out by elevators In elevator DeGarmo lobby Plaza Quad Bridge over College Ave Area outside of Milner Bone Student Center Student Bookstore Bizarre image Dr. Cutting milking a cow in the classroom Cptn Crunch sword fighting with Tony the Tiger Three people roasting hotdogs over camp fire Flood of pickle juice and floating pickles, have to step on pickles to get out Etc. The more bizarre and vivid the image, the better. Add sounds and smells to your images Milk Cereal Hot dogs Pickles Mustard Orange juice Sponges Toilet paper Light bulbs Cookies
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  • A lot of the mnemonic techniques have an imagery aspect to them, so we will start with a discussion of imagery and memory Imagery
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  • Historical Overview Three Ages of Mental Imagery: Three Ages of Mental Imagery The Philosophic Period Mental images were taken to be the main factor in the makeup of the mind. Images were also sometimes believed to be the elements of thought. The Measurement Period Galton (1880), gave a questionnaire to 100 people asking them to remember their breakfast table and answer some questions about the images that they had. Created a measure of imagery that was related to sex, age, and other differences specific to individuals, but learned little else. With behaviorism, this died out. Galton
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  • Historical Overview Three Ages of Mental Imagery: The Cognitive and Neurocognitive Period Imagery studies and research was reborn in the late 1960s on two ideals. The first was proposed by Sheehan and Neisser (1969). It dealt with the quantitative assessment of imagery. (see also Neisser & Kerr, 1973). The second advance for imagery involved the incorporation of the concept into a cognitive model where the internal representation of information was a central element.
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  • Imagery What is a mental image? Is the mental representation of things that are not currently being sensed by the sense organs How is it like reality, how is it different? Hard to study, not directly observable and fade away quickly. Does an image use the same neural hardware as experience? Spatial ability is independent of verbal ability. We can test it using methods similar to operation span or digit span. Example of test: Cube folding: Will the arrows touch if you fold these into cubes?
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  • Imagery and Memory Effects Mental rotation tasks Picture superiority effect Image scanning effect Bizarreness effect Concreteness Effect
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  • Imagery and Memory Effects Mental rotation tasks Mental rotation tasks suggest that you use images in working memory in an analog way. Shepard and Metzler (1972): Rotate images, look at response time. A: Same rotated in picture plane. B: Same rotated in depth. C: Different.
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  • Imagery and Memory Effects Picture superiority effect Shepard (1967): Present 612 pictures or words with a recognition test. After 2 hours approximately 100% accuracy for pictures, 88% for words. After a week about 88% for both. Standing (1977): Learn 1,000 words, 1,000 simple pictures, or 1,000 bizarre pictures. After 2 days recognition memory was 61.5% for words, 77% for pictures, and 88% for bizarre pictures. Summation: Memory for pictures is better than memory for words, especially early on.
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  • Imagery and Memory Effects Image scanning effect Paivio (1978) For example, imagine these times on an analog clock face. Which of each pair has a bigger angle between the hands? 4:10 and 9:23 3:20 and 7:25 2:45 and 1:05 3:15 and 5:30 Results Reaction times related to angular distance, smaller angle = larger RT Ps who were high imagers were overall faster than low imagers
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  • Imagery and Memory Effects Image scanning effect Scanning tasks show that the farther apart two things are on an image, the longer it takes to mentally scan from one to the other (e.g., Kosslyn, Ball, & Reiser, 1978). Memorize this map Theres a hut, a tree, a rock, a lake, a well, sand, and grass. Hear the name of an object, then another. Imagine a black dot zipping from one to the other on the shortest path. Push a button when it gets there.
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  • Imagery and Memory Effects Image scanning effect Scanning tasks show that the farther apart two things are on an image, the longer it takes to mentally scan from one to the other (e.g., Kosslyn, Ball, & Reiser, 1978). Time to scan between all pairs of locations on imaged map
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  • Imagery and Memory Effects Bizarreness effect Better memory for bizarre images McDaniel & Einstein (1986) Presented participants with sentences w/ underlined word triplets, within either bizarre or common sentence contexts (10 sets) Bizarre: The dog rode the bicycle down the street Common: The dog chased the bicycle down the street. Instructions: Form an mental image that included the underlined words, and rate the vividness of the image Following a 30 sec distractor task they were asked to recall the underlined words
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  • Imagery and Memory Effects Bizarreness effect Better memory for bizarre images McDaniel & Einstein (1986) Presented participants with sentences w/ underlined word triplets, within either bizarre or common sentence contexts (10 sets) Bizarre: The dog rode the bicycle down the street Common: The dog chased the bicycle down the street. Results, bizarre images were better recalled than common images But only when in the context of common images May not related to imaging ability, but rather distinctiveness Von Restorff effect (isolation effects): The distinctive (or isolated) item stands out and is remembered better than other list items
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  • Imagery and Memory Effects Concreteness Effect Read list of words Dollar Cabin Storm Arrow River Book Peach Justice Franchise Session Incident Hope Cost Mood Typically better recall for the concrete items
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  • Imagery Images could be: Analog representations: Pictures in the head : Images are what they feel like, a picture in the head whose properties are like the properties of the real thing Perceptual processing : Images use the same perceptual hardware you use to see Propositions : Its essentially a verbal/symbolic thing. The feeling that you have an image is epiphenomenal, there isnt really an image
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  • Three Theories of Imagery 1.Functional-Equivalency hypothesis Analog representations. Something like pictures, but not exactly the same 2.Conceptual-Propositional Hypothesis No images, propositional representation 3.Paivio s Dual-Coding Hypothesis Perhaps both image and verbal (propositional?) representations for some things
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  • Three Theories of Imagery 1. Functional-Equivalency hypothesis Shepard and Kosslyn (e.g., Cooper & Shepard, 1978; Kosslyn & Pomerantz, 1977) States that imagery and perception are extremely similar. Shepard and Kosslyn introduced mental rotation of visual stimuli in memory. Relationship between time required for a specific mental rotation and the actual degrees of rotation Visual images reflect internal representations that operate in a way that is analogous to the functioning of the perception of physical objects
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  • Three Theories of Imagery Images use the same perceptual hardware you use to see. Estes, Verges, & Barsalou (2008) Reading words should lead to mental simulations of the words, using perceptual hardware. Part of this simulation is location. Trial: Prime: Cowboy Word: hat (upper location ) or boot (lower location ) Target: Letter (X or O at top or bottom of the screen) If you simulate the location, then hat should interfere with letters at the top (youre using that perceptual hardware). Boot would be opposite.
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  • Three Theories of Imagery Images use the same perceptual hardware you use to see. Estes, Verges, & Barsalou (2008) Reading words should lead to mental simulations of the words, using perceptual hardware. Results Letters in objects typical locations took longer to identify.
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  • Three Theories of Imagery Images use the same perceptual hardware you use to see. Zwaan & Yaxley (2003) Spatial iconicity effects also suggest that location is part of the representation of words and that location simulation is part of comprehension. Present a pair of words, are they related? Attic Basement Or Basement Attic
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  • Three Theories of Imagery Images use the same perceptual hardware you use to see. Zwaan & Yaxley (2003) When vertical arrangements were correct, participants were faster than when they were incorrect. Again, location seems to be part of the understanding of a word.
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  • Imagery But, pictures support processing that images dont. For example, its harder to decompose an image than it is to decompose a picture. (based on Reed, 1974) Get a clear mental image of the picture below:
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  • Imagery But, pictures support processing that images dont. For example, its harder to decompose an image than it is to decompose a picture. (based on Reed, 1974) Are the following shapes in the picture you just saw?
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  • Imagery But, pictures support processing that images dont. For example, its harder to decompose an image than it is to decompose a picture. (based on Reed, 1974) Are the following shapes in the picture you just saw?
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  • Imagery But, pictures support processing that images dont. For example, you can reverse pictures, but most people report that reversing images is very hard (relative to with a picture). Chambers & Reisberg (1985) Look at ambiguous figure, provide interpretation Imagine the figure, provide a second interpretation, very hard to do Draw image from memory, then give second interpretation, could do it
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