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REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS IN TANTI - uni-bamberg.de · REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS WITHIN THE CLAUSE . COMPLEX REFLEXIVE • Complex reflexive pronouns are strictly local. ... • The controller

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  • REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS IN TANTI

  • REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS: INVENTORY

    Simple reflexive

    Case Sg Pl ABS saj sai ERG sun-ni u-li GEN sun-na u-la DAT sun-ni- u- COMIT sun-ni-cele u-cele SUPER sun-ni-ja u-ja

  • REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS: INVENTORY

    Complex reflexive governed by the predicate

    sunni saj

    agrees with the controller Complex intensifyer

    governed by the predicate

    sunna saj genitive case

  • BASIC FUNCTIONS

    Complex reflexive pronoun: local reflexive only

    musa sun-ni- saj raimcal-li-cew Musa self-OBL-DAT selfM mirror-li-cew e-wa-ibON-Msee:PF-PRETMusa saw himself in the mirror.

  • BASIC FUNCTIONS

    Complex intensifier: intensifier only

    musa sun-nasaj ag-ur ahar-li-ceMusa self-GENselfM go:PR-PRET town-OBL-INTERMusa went to the town himself (alone).

  • BASIC FUNCTIONS

    Simple reflexive pronoun: reflexive/anaphoric pronoun logophoric pronoun intensifier resumptive pronoun (in relative clauses)

  • BASIC FUNCTIONS

    Reflexive/anaphoric pronoun Local reflexive:

    hi.t sun-na quli ag-urthatiself-GEN house:LOC go:PF-PRETHei went to hisi,j home.

  • BASIC FUNCTIONS

    Anaphoric pronoun:[[hi.la-q-ri-li-ja ak-i-ub-le,]this NEG-go:IPF-MSD-OBL-SUPERLS-(M)LV:PF-PRET-CONV[saj wire-wiq-ri ba-ur-le,]selfM MLS-MLV:PF-MSD Nknow:PF-PRET-CONVmalla nasratin-ni qadi-ceMullah Nasreddin-ERG qadi-INTER(LAT)x:ar-ba-i-le=saj] []LS-NLV:PF-PRET-CONV=COPMHe guessed that that man would not come, he understood that he had been deceived and asked the qadi []

  • BASIC FUNCTIONS

    Logophoric pronoun

    [sun-nidam wa-se a-birq-i-d] wi-u hi.tself-ERG I:DATbad-ATRNEG-Ndo:IPF-TH-1Msay:IPF-TH thatHei said that hei would not do any harm to me.

  • BASIC FUNCTIONS

    Intensifier hi.t-i-li sun-ni barq-ib hi.tthat-OBL-ERG self-ERG Ndo:PF-PRET thatHe did that himself (without any hints). Resumptive pronoun sun-na elab dur-nebum-u-se anqself-GENbehindHPL boy-PL HPLplay-PRS-ATR gardenthe garden (such that) the children were playing behind it.

  • REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS WITHIN THE CLAUSE

  • COMPLEX REFLEXIVE

    Complex reflexive pronouns are strictly local. Core arguments control non-core arguments. In the transitive and affective constructions, the core

    arguments are symmetrical with respect to the reflexive control: they control each other.

  • CORE ARGUMENTS OF A TRANSITIVE CLAUSE: SYMMETRY

    a.ruslan-ni arslan-ni- sun-ni sajRuslan-ERG Arslan-OBL-DAT self-ERG selfMsurrat-li-cew e-wa-aq-ibpicture-OBL-INM ON-Msee:PF-CAUS-PRET

    b.ruslan arslan-ni- sun-ni sajRuslan Arslan-OBL-DAT self-ERG selfMsurrat-li-cew e-wa-aq-ibpicture-OBL-INM ON-Msee:PF-CAUS-PRET

    (a=b) Ruslan showed himself to Arslan on the photo.

  • NO CONTROL FROM THE NON-CORE ARGUMENTS

    c. *ruslan-ni arslan-ni- sun-ni- sajRuslan-ERG Arslan-OBL-DAT self-OBL-DAT selfMsurrat-li-cew e-wa-aq-ibpicture-OBL-INM ON-Msee:PF-CAUS-PRET

    (intended translation:) Ruslani showed Arslanj to himselfj on the photo.

  • AFFECTIVE CONSTRUCTION

    a. musa- sun-ni- saj wi-aq-uMusa-DAT self-OBL-DAT selfMMwant-CAUS-PRS

    b. musasun-ni- saj wi-aq-uMusaself-OBL-DAT selfMMwant-CAUS-PRS(a=b) Musa (only) loves himself.

  • INTRANSITIVE PREDICATION:

    a. musa-li abar=akar-le sun-ni sun-ni-Musa-ERG story=NEG-CONV self-ERG self-OBL-DATdaqi barq-ibwound Ndo:PF-PRET

    Musa accidentally wounded himself.b. *musa- abar=akar-le sun-ni sun-ni-Musa-DAT story=NEG-CONV self-ERG self-OBL-DATdaqi barq-ibwound Ndo:PF-PRET

    (intended translation:) Musa accidentally wounded himself.

  • INTRANSITIVE PREDICATION

    a.murad sun-ni-ce sajMurad self-OBL-INTER selfM u maladec=de wik-u-le=sajyou good.boy=2SG Msay:IPF-PRS-CONV=COPMMurad says to himself: You are great!

    b.*murad-li-ce sun-ni-ce sajMurad-OBL-INTER self-OBL-INTER selfMu maladec=de wik-u-le=sajyou good.boy=2SG Msay:IPF-PRS-CONV=COPM(intended translation: the same)

  • COMPLEX REFLEXIVES: SYNTACTIC RESTRICTIONS

    Core arguments (A, P, S) control non-core arguments and each other Non-core arguments do not control core arguments

  • SIMPLE REFLEXIVES IN A TRANSITIVE CLAUSE

    No obvious restrictions: even the core arguments can be controlled by other NPs and by each other.

    a.ruslan-nii arslan-ni-j sajiRuslan-ERG Arslan-OBL-DAT selfMsurrat-li-cew e-wa-aq-ibpicture-OBL-INTERM ON-Msee:PF-CAUS-PRET

    b.ruslani arslan-ni-j sun-niiRuslan Arslan-OBL-DAT self:OBL-ERGsurrat-li-cew e-wa-aq-ibpicture-OBL-INTERM ON-Msee:PF-CAUS-PRETRuslan showed himself to Arslan on the photo.

  • SIMPLE REFLEXIVES IN A TRANSITIVE CLAUSE

    No obvious restrictions: even the core arguments can be controlled by other NPs and by each other.

    a.ruslan-nii arslan-ni-j saji,jRuslan-ERG Arslan-OBL-DAT selfMsurrat-li-cew e-wa-aq-ibpicture-OBL-INTERM ON-Msee:PF-CAUS-PRET

    Ruslan showed himself to Arslan/Arslan to himself on the photo.b.ruslani arslan-ni-j sun-niiRuslan Arslan-OBL-DAT self:OBL-ERGsurrat-li-cew e-wa-aq-ibpicture-OBL-INTERM ON-Msee:PF-CAUS-PRETRuslan showed himself to Arslan on the photo.

  • SIMPLE REFLEXIVES IN AN INTRANSITIVE CLAUSE

    In an intransitive predication, the absolutive argument can be controlling any other argument, but it cannot be cross-referenced by another NP within the same predication:

    a. patimat umra-cele sun-ni-ja-r-haPatimat neighbour-COMIT self-OBL-SUPER-EL-UPitilat-rik-u-le=sarLS-FLV:IPF-PRS-CONV=COPF

    (possible meaning:) Patimat is speaking with the neighbour about herself.b. (*)patimat-li-ja-r-ha umra-cele saiPatimat-OBL-SUPER-EL-UP neighbour-COMIT selfitilat-rikule=sarLS-FLV:IPF-PRS-CONV=COPF

    (impossible meaning:) Patimat is speaking with the neighbour about herself.

  • SIMPLE REFLEXIVES IN AN INTRANSITIVE CLAUSE

    a.muradi sun-ni-jai raimcal-li-ceMurad self-OBL-SUPER mirror-OBL-INTERer-urk-u-le=sajLS-(M)LV:IPF-PRS-CONV-COPM

    Murad is watching himself in the mirror.b.(*)murad-li-jai saji raimcal-li-ce Murad-OBL-SUPER selfM mirror-OBL-INTERer-urk-u-le=sajLS-(M)LV:IPF-PRS-CONV-COPM

    (impossible translation: Murad is watching himself in the mirror.)

  • SYNTACTIC RESTRICTIONS

    The only attested restriction: The absolutive argument of an intransitive verb cannot

    be controlled by another NP of the same clause

  • SIMPLE REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

    FREQUENT TEXT FUNCT IONS

  • FUNCTIONING IN THE TEXTS

    Oral texts in Tanti published in [Sumbatova & Lander 2014] Total volume: app. 400 sentences 37 reflexives

  • FUNCTIONING IN THE TEXTS

    Local reflexive 11 Distant reflexive 10 Long distance pronoun 12

  • LOCAL REFLEXIVE

    From a core argument to a genitive possessor: 7 cases he.l.tu-r-se.leba-ib-le, hi.l halma=rahere-EL-UP HPLcome:PF-PRET-CONVthis bridegroom=ADDsun-ni-la saka-se xunul=ra [] hi.l-tiself-OBL-GENnew-ATR wife=ADD this-PLadah-un-a-lla aka-se kal-n-a-a-ke.le dragon-PL-OBL.PL-GENbeautiful-ATR palace-PL-OBL.PL-IN-DOWNka-bi-ib-le=saiDOWN-HPLsit:PF-PRET-CONV=COPHaving come there, the bridegroom and his new wife settled down in the beautiful dragons palace.

  • LOCAL REFLEXIVE

    From a core argument to a genitive possessor: 7 cases walahwik-u-l=da, dam a-bal-a-d,wallahi Msay:IPF-PRS-CONV=1I:DAT NEG-Nknow:IPF-TH-1[u-la bunab liil bukn-e self.PL-GEN HPLinsideHPL all shepherd-PLquzaldi-ha-bi-ub-le=de]LS-NLV:PF-PRET-CONV=PSTWallahi, said I, I dont know, all the shepherds have been quarrelled.

  • LOCAL REFLEXIVE

    Right-dislocated coordinate NP he.l-tiadah-un-a-ce bik-u-le=sai this-PLdragon-PL-OBL.PL-INTERNsay:IPF-PRS-CONV=COPkurta:ana, bik-u-le=sai fox now Nsay:IPF-PRS-CONV=COP talqan le-wq-un-ne tew,padishah HITHER-Mgo:IPF-PRS-CONV EXSTM[sun-ni-la ala-se askar=ra saj=ra]self-OBL-GENbig-ATR army=ADD selfM=ADDThe fox says to the dragons: Now, it says, the padishah is coming here with his great army.

  • LOCAL REFLEXIVE

    Right-dislocated coordinate NP hi..tud kurt-dik-u-lethereNPL(ESS) LS-NPLLV:IPF-PRS-CONVbat' [ib-ne=ra sab=ra]duck duckling-PL=ADD selfN=ADDThere is a duck with the ducklings swimming there.

  • DISTANT REFLEXIVE

    The controller is a preposed converbal clause, the reflexive pronoun is in a clause on the right of it: 8 cases

    [hati u-jna-lla [meq sa-ba-ib-se=zamana,]then two-MULT-GENwedding HITHER-Nreach:PF-PRET-ATR=time[ag-ur-le=sai hi.l-ti aka-lego:PF-PRET-CONV=COP this-PL beautiful-ADVuri-li-jab], [e-ka-ur-le ERG partal],horse-OBL-SUPERHPL(ESS)ON-DOWN+put.on:PF-PRET-CONV clothessai ag-ur-le=sab talqan-ni-u]self go:PF-PRET-CONV=COPHPL padishah-OBL-AD(LAT)Then, when the time for the wedding came, they put on beautiful clothes and rode for the second time to the padishah.

  • DISTANT REFLEXIVE

    [[hi.l a-q-ri-li-ja ak-i-ub-le,]this NEG-go:IPF-MSD-OBL-SUPERLS-(M)LV:PF-PRET-CONV[saj wire-wiq-ri ba-ur-le,]selfMMLS-MLV:PF-MSDNknow:PF-PRET-CONVmalla nasratin-ni qadi-ceMullahNasreddin-ERGqadi-INTER(LAT)x:ar-ba-i-le=saj] []LS-NLV:PF-PRET-CONV=COPMHe guessed that that man would not come, he understood that he had been deceived and asked the qadi []

  • ANAPHORIC PRONOUN

    The antecedent is an important object of the discourse (focus of empathy?) In a previous sentence it is presented by a phonetically

    non-zero NP (normally, a core argument) In some further predications it can be presented by several

    coreferential zero NPs After that, there is a piece of text where this antecedent is

    totally absent When returning to this antecedent, the speaker encodes it

    by the simple reflexive

  • malla nasratin-ni it-aq-ib-leMullahNasreddin-ERG LS-NEG+LV:PF-PRET-CONV wit-a-ib-le baq-ib-leMLS-LV:PF-PRET-CONV Nhit:PF-PRET-CONV

    qadi-la kanta, wik-u-le=saj:qadi-GEN nape Msay:IPF-PRS-ADV=COPMhi.t-i-li q-ib-se apasi damthat-OBL-ERG carry:PF-PRET-ATR abbas I:data-ib-le, at bat-e, NEG+give:PF-PRET-CONV you:DAT Nleave:PF-IMP wik-u-le=saj

    Msay:IPF-PRS-CONV=COPMsaj quli ag-ur-sajselfM house:LOC(LAT) go:PF-PRET-ATR+COPMSilently, Mullah Nasreddin forcefully hit the qadi on his nape and said: Dont give me the abbas that he will bring, leave it to yourself. And (then) he went home.

  • alaba rib-ib=qalle,grandmother Frun.away:PF-PRET=whenala.tati=ra urk-uq-un-ne:grandfather=ADDLS-(M)LV:PF-PRET-CONVwa, se-li rib-ib-le=wara hi.t?wah what-ERG Frun.away:PF-PRET-CONV=RQ thatse-kal bitarg-ur-le bi-an-da-le,what-INDEFNTHITHER+NEG+go:PF-PRET-CONVNbecome:PF-TH-PST-CONDhi.t a-rib-ini=qale iblethat NEG-Frun.away:IPF-HAB=ACTL CIT bar-bat-ur-le u=ra, saj=ra

    NLS-NLV:PF-PRET-CONV book=ADD selfM=ADDhi.l-i-hi-ti saj=ra wib-ib-le=sajthat-OBL-POST-TRANS selfM=ADD Mrun.away:PF-PRET-CONV=COPMWhen the grandmother ran away, the grandfather shivered too: Wah, why did she run away? If nothing had happened, she would not run away. He left his book and ran away after her.

  • ANAPHORIC PRONOUN

    The pronoun is very close to its antecedent, but it is a non-core argument (dative):

    baz-le-ew bukun ew.enclosure-OBL-INM(ESS) shepherd EXSTM[sun-ni- due waq-i zamanaself-OBL-DAT herd(LAT) Mgo:IPF-INF timea-di-ib-se=j]NEG-NPLfall:PF-PRET-ATR=PQ[due a-dik-u-se=j] a-bal-a-dherd(LAT) NEG-NPLfall:IPF-TH-ATR=PQ NEG-Nknow:IPF-TH-1There is a shepherd in the enclosure. I dont know probably it is not time for him to go herding, or they do not go to the pasture

  • MOST FREQUENT FUNCTIONS OF THE SIMPLE REFLEXIVE

    Local reflexive: coreference of a core argument and a possessive genitive Distant reflexive: coreference of two core arguments in a

    chain: in a preposed converbal clause and in a clause following it Anaphoric pronoun: coreference of a NP to the focus of

    empathy that was temporarily absent in the discourse