Respiration Glycolysis | Aerobic Respiration | Anaerobic Respiration

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Text of Respiration Glycolysis | Aerobic Respiration | Anaerobic Respiration

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  • Respiration Glycolysis | Aerobic Respiration | Anaerobic Respiration
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  • Learning Objectives Explain the release of energy through glycolysis Describe the main steps of aerobic respiration Differentiate between the two main types of anaerobic respiration Compare and contrast the different forms of aerobic and anaerobic respiration Respiration
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  • Glycolysis (anaerobic) Krebs cycle (aerobic) Electron Transport Chain (aerobic) Respiration takes place in three main stages: ATP
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  • Glycolysis occurs in the ________, but the Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain occurs in the ____________. cytoplasm mitochondria Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm. The Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain occur in the mitochondria.
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  • Definition: Glycolysis is the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken down to produce two molecules of pyruvic acid. Glucose 2 molecules pyruvic acid
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  • Glycolysis breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid Products: 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, and 2 NADH Occurs in cytosol with or without oxygen Glycolysis
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  • There are 2 types of respiration:
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  • Aerobic respiration the process of breaking down glucose to yield a maximum amount of ATP that takes place in the presence of oxygen Generates 36-38 ATP Citric acid cycle a series of eight reactions that further Aerobic Respiration breaks down the end product of glycolysis (acetyl CoA) to carbon dioxide
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  • Citric acid cycle Occurs in mitochondria Pyruvate from glycolysis is converted to acetyl CoA before entering cycle Cycle turns twice per glucose molecule One turn per acetyl CoA Each turn produces: 2 CO 2 2 NADH 1 FADH 2 1 ATP Aerobic Respiration
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  • Electron transport chain NADH and FADH 2 donate electrons Phosphate group is added to ADP and makes ATP. Aerobic Respiration
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  • Fermentation occurs when: oxygen is not present. Since no oxygen is required, fermentation is an __________ process. anaerobic The anaerobic pathways are not very efficient in transferring energy from ________ to _____. Fermentation will yield only a gain of _______ per molecule of ______. glucose ATP 2 ATP glucose
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  • There are two main types of fermentation: Alcoholic fermentation Lactic acid fermentation
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  • Alcoholic Fermentation _______ perform alcoholic fermentation. Yeasts convert _____________ into ______________ when they run out of _______. Yeasts are used to make breads and alcohol. Yeasts pyruvic acid ethyl alcohol oxygen
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  • The Steps of Alcoholic Fermentation Glucose Pyruvic acid 2 ATP Glycolysis If no O 2 available CO 2 Ethyl alcohol Yeasts are used in this way in both the ________ and the _______ industries. The alcohol makes alcoholic beverages. The ______________ that is given off causes bread dough to _____. Small bubbles are formed in the dough, making the bread rise. (The alcohol evaporates during the baking process.) alcoholbaking carbon dioxiderise
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  • The Steps of Lactic Acid Fermentation Glucose Pyruvic acid 2 ATP Glycolysis Lactic acid ____________ is converted to _________ by _______ cells when there is a shortage of ________. It is produced in muscle cells during strenuous exercise because the muscles are using up the _______ that is present and the body is not supplying the muscle tissue with enough additional oxygen. Pyruvic acid lactic acidmuscle oxygen
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  • This causes _____________ because it lowers the ___ of the muscle and reduces the muscles ability to ________. When oxygen _______ to the muscles, the __________ will be converted back to ____________. The pyruvic acid will then go into _______ respiration. severe cramps pH contract returns lactic acid pyruvic acid aerobic A wide variety of foods are produced by bacteria using lactic acid fermentation: cheese, yogurt, buttermilk, sour cream, pickles, sauerkraut.
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  • Lactic acid fermentation the type of fermentation in which lactic acid is produced Alcoholic fermentation a type of fermentation in which ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced Anaerobic Respiration Alcoholic fermentationLactic acid fermentation
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  • Respiration Comparison ReactionReactantsProductsNet Energy Gain Location Glycolysis GlucosePyruvate2 ATPCytoplasm Aerobic respiration Pyruvate, oxygen Water, carbon dioxide 34 or 36 ATPMitochondria Lactic acid fermentation Pyruvate Lactic acid NoneCytoplasm Alcoholic fermentation PyruvateAlcohol (ethanol), carbon dioxide NoneCytoplasm
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  • Learning Objectives Explain the release of energy through glycolysis Describe the main steps of aerobic respiration Differentiate between the two main types of anaerobic respiration Compare and contrast the different forms of aerobic and anaerobic respiration Respiration