of 8/8
(CANCER RESEARCH 50. 1834-1840. March 15. 1990] Role of Asialo-Gjvii Positive Liver Cells from Athymic Nude or Polyinosinic- Polycytidylic Acid-treated Mice in Suppressing Colon-derived Experimental Hepatic Metastasis1 Stefan A. Cohen,2 Shie-pon Tzung, Ralph J. Doerr, and Martin H. Goldrosen Departments of Medicine and Surgery, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VA Medical Center and Buffalo General Hospital, Buffalo, New York 14215 (S. A. C., S. T., R. J. D.], and Division of Clinical Immunology, Roswell Park Memorial Institute, Buffalo, Neu- York 14263 [M. H. G.J ABSTRACT Liver-derived (LD) murine colon adenocarcinoma MCA-38 cells in jected into the ileocolic vein (ICV) of C57BL/6 mice developed distinct hepatic foci within 14-21 days and survived for an average of 19-35 days. In contrast, C57BL/6-nu/ni/ mice given injections of LD-MCA cells by the same route did not develop hepatic lesions. Furthermore, '"In- labeled LD-MCA-38 tumor cells were rapidly taken up by the liver of conventional mice within l h and 73% of the radioactivity remained after 24 h. However, about 60% of the '"In-labeled LD-MCA-38 tumor cells were cleared from the liver of nude mice after 24 h. Nonparenchymal liver cells isolated from untreated conventional mice displayed little cytotoxicity against freshly excised "Cr-labeled LD-MCA-38 cells but did lyse the standard natural killer target, YAC-1 tumor cells, in 4 h chromium release assays. On the other hand, nonparenchymal liver cells but not spleen cells from nude mice were cytotoxic to "Cr-labeled LD- MCA-38 in vitro. The nonparenchymal liver cell population responsible for tumor killing was phenotypically nonadherent and asialo-GMi (AsGMi) positive. C57BL/6 mice treated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid |poly(IC)| also displayed cytotoxic activity against LD-MCA-38 tumor cells in vitro. Furthermore, poly(IC) treatment of mice 1-8 days after tumor inoculation suppressed the number of hepatic foci and also signif icantly increased the life span of tumor-bearing mice. Treatment of athymic nude mice or poly(IC)-treated conventional mice with anti-AsGM, induced significant numbers of foci and significantly decreased the life span of MCA-38-bearing mice suggesting that AsG.Mi-positive cells in the liver of these mice may inhibit tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, the host defense system of the liver from athymic nude or poly(IC)- treated mice possess AsGMi-positive cells that can suppress tumor im plantation or tumor growth in the early stages of metastasis in liver. INTRODUCTION Hepatic metastasis is the most common cause of death from colon cancer (1,2). About 70% of patients with advanced colon tumors develop hepatic metastasis (3, 4). After the invasion of the tumor through the portal blood to the liver, there is a progression of colon-derived metastasis from hepatic to extra- hepatic sites (5). Despite the concomitant development of ex- trahepatic cancer, the extent of tumor within the liver deter mines the length of survival of most patients. Unfortunately, the prognosis for this disease has not changed over the last few decades. Little is known about the role of the host defense system of the liver in controlling tumor invasion. To study this problem with the goal of creating new therapies, more mean ingful experimental models need to be generated that more closely simulate the human condition. Several syngeneic (6-8) and xenogeneic (9, 10) systems of colon-derived hepatic metas tasis have been developed in rodents. The metastatic capacity Received 8/7/89; revised 11/20/89. The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. This article must therefore be hereby marked advertisement in accordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact. 1Supported by Medical Research Funds from the Veterans Administration (S. A. C.) and from NIH R01-28835 (S. A. C.) and the Troup Fund from Buffalo General Hospital (S. A. C, R. J. D.). 2To whom requests for reprints should be addressed, at Buffalo Veterans Hospital, 3495 Bailey Ave., Buffalo, NY 14215. of these tumors depends on both the origin of the tumor and the route of tumor injection. This laboratory (11) has developed a murine model of experimental hepatic metastasis in which a murine colon adenocarcinoma (MCA-38') passaged in vivo is injected into the ICV and subsequently colonizes the liver of C57BL/6 mice in a reproducible fashion. In this unique syn geneic model, the number of colonies or foci formed within the liver correlates with survival of the mouse. A syngeneic murine model is particularly suited to study the interaction between host organ microenvironment and tumor. Few studies have focused on the immunological ability of NPC which may also function to protect the parenchyma from viruses, bacteria, and toxic insult ( 12) to inhibit the colonization of colon tumors in vivo and their growth in vitro. Recently our laboratory (13-15) as well as others (16, 17) have shown that AsGM,-positive cells from the NPC population of untreated rodents have the ability to lyse tumor cells in vitro. However, their in vivo function in controlling colon tumor growth is unknown. In the present study, using our experimental hepatic metas tasis model, we have investigated liver metastasis of LD-MCA- 38 cells in immunocompetent, immunostimulated, and congen- itally immunodeficient mice. In vivo, we have demonstrated that AsGM,-positive liver cells from nude mice or poly(IC)- treated conventional mice play a role in suppressing the number of metastatic liver foci as well as prolonging the life span of mice. In vitro, these cells also display cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against LD-MCA-38 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS Mice. Adult 6- to 10-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were obtained from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME). Athymic nu/nu mice were obtained from Taconic Farms, Germantown, NY. C57BL/6-/!«/ + and C57BL/6-/1U/H«were bred in animal facilities at Roswell Park Memorial Institute (Buffalo, NY). All mice were maintained on a standard mouse diet of pellets and water ad libitum. Reagents. Poly(IC) was obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO). Mice were given i.p. injections of 200 Mgof poly(IC) as indicated. Preparation of LD-MCA-38 Tumor Cells (11). Mice bearing liver tumors between the 3rd and 5th weeks post-ICV injection were sacri ficed and pinned to a dissecting board. The liver was exteriorized by a midline incision, and a lobe-by-lobe hepatectomy was performed into a glass Petri dish containing 10 ml 0.25% trypsin-EDTA maintained at 4°C. Tumor nodules were carefully dissected from normal liver tissue, and nonnecrotic portions were cut into 2-3-mm fragments by a scalpel blade and fine forceps. These were collected into a 50-ml plastic tube containing 10 ml fresh 0.25% trypsin-EDTA and rotated for 15 min at room temperature. The resulting tumor enzyme suspension was diluted 3The abbreviations used are: MCA-38, murine colon adenocarcinoma 38; LD, liver-derived; CD, culture-derived; NK. natural killer cell; NPC, nonparenchymal liver cells; ICV, ileocolic vein; AsGMi. asialo-GMi; IFN, interferon; poly(IC), polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid; HBSS, Hanks' balanced salt solution: Ad-NPC, adherent nonparenchymal liver cells; RS. rabbit serum. 1834 on June 19, 2020. © 1990 American Association for Cancer Research. cancerres.aacrjournals.org Downloaded from

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  • (CANCER RESEARCH 50. 1834-1840. March 15. 1990]

    Role of Asialo-GjviiPositive Liver Cells from Athymic Nude or Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid-treated Mice in Suppressing Colon-derived ExperimentalHepatic Metastasis1

    Stefan A. Cohen,2 Shie-pon Tzung, Ralph J. Doerr, and Martin H. Goldrosen

    Departments of Medicine and Surgery, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VA Medical Center and Buffalo General Hospital, Buffalo, New York 14215(S. A. C., S. T., R. J. D.], and Division of Clinical Immunology, Roswell Park Memorial Institute, Buffalo, Neu- York 14263 [M. H. G.J

    ABSTRACT

    Liver-derived (LD) murine colon adenocarcinoma MCA-38 cells injected into the ileocolic vein (ICV) of C57BL/6 mice developed distincthepatic foci within 14-21 days and survived for an average of 19-35days. In contrast, C57BL/6-nu/ni/ mice given injections of LD-MCA cellsby the same route did not develop hepatic lesions. Furthermore, '"In-

    labeled LD-MCA-38 tumor cells were rapidly taken up by the liver ofconventional mice within l h and 73% of the radioactivity remained after24 h. However, about 60% of the '"In-labeled LD-MCA-38 tumor cells

    were cleared from the liver of nude mice after 24 h. Nonparenchymalliver cells isolated from untreated conventional mice displayed littlecytotoxicity against freshly excised "Cr-labeled LD-MCA-38 cells butdid lyse the standard natural killer target, YAC-1 tumor cells, in 4 hchromium release assays. On the other hand, nonparenchymal liver cellsbut not spleen cells from nude mice were cytotoxic to "Cr-labeled LD-MCA-38 in vitro. The nonparenchymal liver cell population responsiblefor tumor killing was phenotypically nonadherent and asialo-GMi (AsGMi)positive. C57BL/6 mice treated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid|poly(IC)| also displayed cytotoxic activity against LD-MCA-38 tumorcells in vitro. Furthermore, poly(IC) treatment of mice 1-8 days aftertumor inoculation suppressed the number of hepatic foci and also significantly increased the life span of tumor-bearing mice. Treatment ofathymic nude mice or poly(IC)-treated conventional mice with anti-AsGM,induced significant numbers of foci and significantly decreased the lifespan of MCA-38-bearing mice suggesting that AsG.Mi-positive cells inthe liver of these mice may inhibit tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion,the host defense system of the liver from athymic nude or poly(IC)-treated mice possess AsGMi-positive cells that can suppress tumor implantation or tumor growth in the early stages of metastasis in liver.

    INTRODUCTION

    Hepatic metastasis is the most common cause of death fromcolon cancer (1,2). About 70% of patients with advanced colontumors develop hepatic metastasis (3, 4). After the invasion ofthe tumor through the portal blood to the liver, there is aprogression of colon-derived metastasis from hepatic to extra-hepatic sites (5). Despite the concomitant development of ex-trahepatic cancer, the extent of tumor within the liver determines the length of survival of most patients. Unfortunately,the prognosis for this disease has not changed over the last fewdecades. Little is known about the role of the host defensesystem of the liver in controlling tumor invasion. To study thisproblem with the goal of creating new therapies, more meaningful experimental models need to be generated that moreclosely simulate the human condition. Several syngeneic (6-8)and xenogeneic (9, 10) systems of colon-derived hepatic metastasis have been developed in rodents. The metastatic capacity

    Received 8/7/89; revised 11/20/89.The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment

    of page charges. This article must therefore be hereby marked advertisement inaccordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact.

    1Supported by Medical Research Funds from the Veterans Administration(S. A. C.) and from NIH R01-28835 (S. A. C.) and the Troup Fund from BuffaloGeneral Hospital (S. A. C, R. J. D.).

    2To whom requests for reprints should be addressed, at Buffalo VeteransHospital, 3495 Bailey Ave., Buffalo, NY 14215.

    of these tumors depends on both the origin of the tumor andthe route of tumor injection. This laboratory (11) has developeda murine model of experimental hepatic metastasis in which amurine colon adenocarcinoma (MCA-38') passaged in vivo is

    injected into the ICV and subsequently colonizes the liver ofC57BL/6 mice in a reproducible fashion. In this unique syngeneic model, the number of colonies or foci formed within theliver correlates with survival of the mouse. A syngeneic murinemodel is particularly suited to study the interaction betweenhost organ microenvironment and tumor.

    Few studies have focused on the immunological ability ofNPC which may also function to protect the parenchyma fromviruses, bacteria, and toxic insult ( 12) to inhibit the colonizationof colon tumors in vivo and their growth in vitro. Recently ourlaboratory (13-15) as well as others (16, 17) have shown thatAsGM,-positive cells from the NPC population of untreatedrodents have the ability to lyse tumor cells in vitro. However,their in vivo function in controlling colon tumor growth isunknown.

    In the present study, using our experimental hepatic metastasis model, we have investigated liver metastasis of LD-MCA-38 cells in immunocompetent, immunostimulated, and congen-itally immunodeficient mice. In vivo, we have demonstratedthat AsGM,-positive liver cells from nude mice or poly(IC)-treated conventional mice play a role in suppressing the numberof metastatic liver foci as well as prolonging the life span ofmice. In vitro, these cells also display cytostatic and cytotoxicactivity against LD-MCA-38 cells.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    Mice. Adult 6- to 10-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were obtainedfrom The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME). Athymic nu/nu micewere obtained from Taconic Farms, Germantown, NY. C57BL/6-/!«/+ and C57BL/6-/1U/H«were bred in animal facilities at Roswell ParkMemorial Institute (Buffalo, NY). All mice were maintained on astandard mouse diet of pellets and water ad libitum.

    Reagents. Poly(IC) was obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. (St.Louis, MO). Mice were given i.p. injections of 200 Mgof poly(IC) asindicated.

    Preparation of LD-MCA-38 Tumor Cells (11). Mice bearing livertumors between the 3rd and 5th weeks post-ICV injection were sacrificed and pinned to a dissecting board. The liver was exteriorized by amidline incision, and a lobe-by-lobe hepatectomy was performed into aglass Petri dish containing 10 ml 0.25% trypsin-EDTA maintained at4°C.

    Tumor nodules were carefully dissected from normal liver tissue, andnonnecrotic portions were cut into 2-3-mm fragments by a scalpelblade and fine forceps. These were collected into a 50-ml plastic tubecontaining 10 ml fresh 0.25% trypsin-EDTA and rotated for 15 min atroom temperature. The resulting tumor enzyme suspension was diluted

    3The abbreviations used are: MCA-38, murine colon adenocarcinoma 38; LD,liver-derived; CD, culture-derived; NK. natural killer cell; NPC, nonparenchymalliver cells; ICV, ileocolic vein; AsGMi. asialo-GMi; IFN, interferon; poly(IC),polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid; HBSS, Hanks' balanced salt solution: Ad-NPC,

    adherent nonparenchymal liver cells; RS. rabbit serum.

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  • SUPPRESSION OF HEPATIC METASTASIS BY AsGMI* LIVER CELLS

    up to 50 ml with RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum plus antibiotics, filtered through a four-layer No. 200 nylon mesh, and spun at 200 x g. The pellet was washedonce in tissue culture medium and resuspended to a final concentrationof 1.5 x 10" cells/ml. The viability of injected cells as determined by

    trypan blue dye exclusion was between 90 and 95%.ICV Injection (11). Mice 8-10 weeks old were anesthetized by i.p.

    injection of 55 mg pentobarbital/kg. A midline incision was made andthe ICV was exposed; 1.5 x 10' tumor cells in 0.1 ml were injectedinto the vein with a 30-gauge needle attached to a 1-ml tuberculinsyringe, and a cotton-tipped applicator was placed over the injectionsite for 1 min to prevent excessive bleeding. After the cecum wasreturned to its proper position in the abdomen, the peritoneal membrane was closed with the use of a 5-0 chromic suture (Ethicon), andthe skin was closed with stainless steel clips.

    Laparotomy. Two to 3 weeks after ICV injection, mice were reanes-thetized by i.p. injection of pentobarbital (50 mg/kg), and a 3-cmmidline incision was made from the tip of the sternum to the pubis. Allsix lobes of the liver were carefully examined anteriorly and posteriorlyfor tumors by a small stainless steel retractor and saline-moistenedcotton-tipped applicator. The numbers of visible liver foci were recordedfor each lobe, and the abdomen was closed by a 5-0 Ethilene suture(Ethicon) and stainless steel clips. Hepatic foci greater than 400 couldnot be accurately counted and were recorded as 400.

    Survival. All experimental animals were palpated once per weekbeginning at the 2nd week until death to assess hepatic tumor growth.The day of death was recorded.

    Preparation of NPC. NPC were isolated by modifying a previouslydescribed method (14, 15, 18). Briefly, mice were sacrificed by cervicaldislocation, the skin over the abdomen and chest was reflected, and theinferior vena cava was ligated above the diaphragm. The inferior venacava below the liver was cannulatcd with a heparinized 20-gauge needle,through which the liver was perfused at 37°Cwith 40 ml of HBSSwithout Ca2* and Mg:* (pH 7.2), delivered over 2 min with the outflow

    through an incision in the portal vein. The liver was then perfused with100 ml of sterile HBSS (pH 7.6) supplemented with 0.05% collagenase.delivered over 5 min. The distended and blanched liver was removed,rinsed with HBSS, teased apart with a rubber policeman, and passedthrough a 100 ^m nylon mesh screen. Five ml of a single cell suspensionwere mixed with 7 ml of 30% w/v Metrizamide (Accurate and ScientificCo., Hicksville, NY), dissolved in Guy's balanced salt solution (withoutNaCI), then gently overlaid with I ml of Guy's balanced salt solution(with NaCI), and centrifuged at 550 x g for 15 min at 23°C.NPC were

    collected from the interface, washed twice in HBSS, and resuspendedin media. NPC obtained by this method were >95% viable (as assessedby trypan blue exclusion) and contained less than 3% hepatocytes.Approximately 1 x IO7NPC were recovered per liver.

    Isolation of NPC Adherent to Plastic (Kupffer Cells). Various numbers of NPC were seeded into microwells of 96-well flat bottomed tissueculture plates and allowed to adhere for 3 h at 37"C in tissue culture

    medium (containing 20% fetal bovine serum. After incubation, thenonadherent cells were removed and the plates were washed 4 timeswith warm medium. Greater than 90% of adherent cells were livermacrophages or Kupffer cells as shown by uptake of latex beads andnonspecific esterase staining.

    In Vivo Treatment of Mice with Anti-AsGM,. Rabbit anli-AsGMi waspurchased from Wako Chemical Co. (Dallas, TX). Mice were given 25-H\ injections of anti-AsGMi i.p.. 1 day prior to and 4 days after tumorinoculation. Rabbit anti-AsGMi reacts with murine NK cells, fetal livercells, and mouse monocytes (19-22).

    Assay of Cytotoxic Activity. Target cells were labeled with Na/'CrO.,for l h at 37°C(100¿iCi/106cells). The "Cr release assay was performed

    in 96-well fiat bottomed tissue culture plates (Costar, Cambridge, MA).NPC were mixed with 2 x IO4tumor target cells in triplicate in a total

    volume of 200 ^1 and incubated for 4 h in a humidified atmosphere of5% CC>2in air. Supernatants were harvested and counted in a Packardgamma counter. The results were expressed as the percentage of specificrelease calculated as

    100A - BC- B

    in which A is cpm of experimental, B is cpm from spontaneous release,and C is cpm from target cells. The target cells used in this study wereCD-MCA-38 and YAC-1 maintained in tissue culture medium and freeof Mycoplasma and LD-MCA-38.

    Assay of Cytostatic Activity. The cytostasis assay was performed in96-well fiat bottomed tissue culture plates as described previously (23).From 4 to 8 x IO5 NPC were mixed with 2 x IO4 cold tumor target

    cells in triplicate in a total volume of 200 //I and incubated for 72 h ina humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air. Wells were pulsed with 0.5fjCiofthymidine for 18 h. the cells were harvested with a semiautomaticcell harvester (Skatron Model 1701), and the cpm were determined byliquid scintillation counting. The percentage of inhibition was determined as

    %>inhibition = 1 —¿� cpm (NPC + target cells)cpm (NPC) + cpm (target cells)

    x 100

    In Vivo Clearance of Tumor Cells. LD-MCA-38 tumor cells werelabeled with '"In oxide as described previously (24). Radiolabeledtumor cells were injected into the ICV (IO5 cell/0.1 ml) of mice and the

    level of radioactivity in blood, lung, liver, spleen, heart, and kidney wasdetermined in a gamma counter (Beckman Model 5500B) 1 and 24 hlater.

    RESULTS

    Colonization of LD-MCA-38 Tumor Cells after ICV Injectioninto C57BL/6, C57BL/6-/iw/+, and C57BL/6-/i«//n/. LD-MCA-38 tumor cells after injection into the ICV of C57BL/6 orC57BL/6-/IM/+ mice produced distinct hepatic foci that couldbe easily quantitated. The hepatic foci formed by this procedureare microscopically apparent 11 days after injection and arevisible to the eye 14-21 days after injection. In a typical experiment, up to a maximum of 400 foci/liver were enumerated 21days after inoculation of LD-MCA-38 cells (Table 1). C57BL/6-/IM/+ mice with 400 hepatic foci on day 21 survived an averageof 27 days (Fig. 1). Furthermore, 21 days after tumor inoculation into untreated C57BL/6 mice, the liver was the only organ

    Table I Induction of experimental hepatic metastasis in C57BL/6, C57BL/6-nu/+, and C57BL/6-nu/nu mice after ICI ' injection of LD-MCA-38 cells'

    No. of

    No. of liverfoci/mouse (day 2 1)

    StrainC57BL/6

    C57BL/6-nu/+C57BL/6-n«/nwmice5

    10toMean3004000Median400

    4000Range105-400

    4000P"0.001colonization100

    1000

    " LD-MCA-38 tumor cells (2.5 x 10') were injected into C57BL/6. C57BL/6-nu/+, and C57BL/6-nu/nu mice by the ICV route.

    * Wilcoxon rank sum test; compared to nu/+ mice.

    XSURVIVAL755025nÕV.

    0 —¿�OC57BI/6.nu/+\Q

    •¿�—¿�•¿�C57BI/6.nu/nu*

    V A AC57BI/6'

    \\\°R

    10 20 30 40 50 60 70

    DAYS POST LO-MCA-3B INJECTION

    80

    Fig. 1. C57BL/6. C57BL/6-Õ1U/+.or C57BL/6-nu/n« mice were given injections of 2.5 x 10' LD-MCA-38 tumor cells into the ICV and survival was

    determined.

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  • SUPPRESSION OF HEPATIC METASTASIS BY AsGMi*LIVER CELLS

    Table 2 Clearance of'"In-LD-MCA-3S tumor cells by various organs ofC57BL/6-nu/+ and CS7BL/6-nu/nu mice'

    StrainC57BL/6-nu/+

    C57BL/6-nu/nuC57BL/6-/IU/+C57BL/6-nu//iuTime

    after'"In-LD-MCA-38

    injection

  • SUPPRESSION OF HEPATIC METASTASIS BY AsGM1* LIVER TELLS

    was injected into C57BL/6 mice and 1 day later the cytotoxicityagainst both tumors was evaluated. NPC from poly(IC)-treatedmice induced significant activity against "Cr-LD-MCA-38 tu

    mor cells and displayed augmented cytotoxic activity against"Cr-YAC-1 compared with untreated mice (Table 3, Experi

    ment D).Because no cytotoxic activity by NPC from conventional mice

    against LD-MCA-38 cells was detected using the short-term 4-h "Cr release assay, a longer term 72-h cytostatic ['Hjthymidine

    uptake assay was used. As illustrated in Table 4, NPC fromuntreated conventional mice from 4 separate experiments exerted 30-50% cytostatic activity against LD-MCA-38 cells.This activity was not detected with Ad-NPC (>90% Kupffercells). In contrast, NPC from nude mice exerted augmentedcytostatic activity (95-97%) against LD-MCA-38 tumor cells.Furthermore, treatment of nude mice with anti-AsGMi totallyreversed the cytostatic activity of NPC in one experiment (Table4, Experiment B) and partially reversed in another experiment(Table 4, Experiment C). Poly(IC) given 1 day prior to sacrificealso boosted the cytostatic activity of NPC against LD-MCA-

    38 tumor cells (Table 4, Experiments D and E).In Vivo Effect of Anti-AsGM, on the Number of Hepatic Foci

    and Survival of LD-MCA-38 and CD-MCA-38 Tumor Cells inAthymic nu/nu Mice and Poly(IC)-treated C57BL/6 Mice. Previously, we have shown (27) that treatment of C57BL/6 micewith anti-AsGMi 1 day prior to and 3 days after LD-MCA-38tumor inoculation reduced survival from 35 to 17 days (P <0.005). Since anti-AsGM1 treatment of nude mice caused adecrease in the cytotoxic activity of NPC against YAC-1 cells

    and LD-MCA-38 cells and cytostatic activity of NPC againstLD-MCA-38 tumor cells (Tables 3 and 4), the effect of thistreatment on the number of hepatic foci and survival of nudemice given LD-MCA-38 tumor cells was determined. As shownin Table 5, athymic nu/nu mice developed only a median of 2foci/liver and as illustrated in Fig. 2 survived an average of 60days. In parallel experiments, when these mice were given anti-AsGM, followed by ICV injection of LD-MCA-38 cells, they

    developed dramatically more hepatic foci (400) and their survival time was significantly decreased to an average of only 19day (P< 0.0005). C57BL/6 mice inoculated with CD-MCA-38

    cells by the ICV route did not develop any hepatic foci (day 21)and prior treatment of mice with anti-AsGMi did not inducecolonization or death (data not shown). BALB/c-nu/nu mice

    were also able to resist hepatic metastasis and 80% did not havehepatic foci on day 21 (Table 4) and survived for at least 80days.

    The effect of poly(IC) on the hepatic metastasis and survivalof tumor bearing mice was also determined. As illustrated inTable 5, poly(IC) given to C57BL/6 mice 1 day after LD-MCA-

    38 tumor cell administration dramatically inhibited the numberof hepatic foci on day 14 (median, 400 versus 1). This treatmentalso increased their mean life span from 20 to 70 days (P <0.005) (Fig. 3). The administration of anti-AsGM) before andafter tumor inoculation and poly(IC) treatment resulted in asignificant increase in the number of hepatic foci (1 versus 400)as well as a decrease in mean survival from >70 to 24 days(Fig. 3). Poly(IC) also suppressed tumor progression and in-

    Table 4 Cytostatic activity of NPC from C57BL/6-nu/+, C57BL/6-nu/nu, and poly(IC)-treated mice against LD-MCA-38 cells

    TreatmentExperiment Strain* invivoAC57BL/6-/IU/+

    NoneNoneC57BL/6-nu/nu

    NoneNoneBC57BL/6-nu/nu

    RS'RSAnti-AsGM,'Anti-AsGM,CC57BL/6-/1U/+

    NoneNoneC57BL/6-nu/nu

    RS'Anti-AsGmi'Anti-AsGwiDC57BL/6

    NoneNoneNoneNonePolydcVPoly(IC)Poly(IC)Poly(IC)EC57BL/6

    NonePoly(1C)7Poly(IC)*Cells*LD-MCA-38NPCNPC

    +LD-MCA-38NPCNPC

    +LD-MCA-38LD-MCA-38NPCNPC

    +LD-MCA-38NPCNPC

    +LD-MCA-38LD-MCA-38NPC

    +LD-MCA-38Ad-NPC+LD-MCA-38NPC

    +LD-MCA-38NPC+LD-MCA-38Ad-NPC

    +LD-MCA-38LD-MCA-38NPCNPC

    +LD-MCA-38AdNPCAd-NPC

    +LD-MCA-38NPCNPC

    +LD-MCA-38Ad-NPCAd-NPC

    -1-LD-MCA-38LD-MCA-38NPC

    +LD-MCA-38NPC+LD-MCA-38NPC+ LD-MCA-38['HIThymidine

    (10-'xcpm)c29

    ±31±119±

    21±13±032

    ±51±11±15±336

    ±522

    ±311±121±11±114±518±

    154

    ±52±134

    ±21±164±11±111±11±150±119±314±

    25±118±

    2%

    inhibition''409097050s953519390780307510

    °Three mice/group.* NPC. poly(IC) NPC. or Ad-NPC (4 x 10'), LD-MCA-38 tumor cells (2 x IO4),or NPC. poly(IC) NPC, or Ad-NPC (4 x IO5)plus 2 x 10" LD-MCA-38 tumor

    cells »erecultured in medium containing I0rr fetal bovine serum for 72 h and pulsed with 0.5 »¿Ciof ['H]thymidine for 18 h.' Mean ±SD of triplicate samples.d See "Materials and Methods."' RS or anti-AsGMi (25 ^1) was injected i.p. into 3 mice 1 day prior to sacrifice.

    Three C57BL/6 mice were treated i.p. with 200 ^g poly(IC) 1 day prior to sacrifice.'Three C57BL/6 mice »eretreated i.p. with 200 »igpoly(lC) 9 days prior to sacrifice.

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  • SUPPRESSION OF HEPATIC METASTASIS BY AsGMi* LIVER CELLS

    Table 5 Induction of experimental hepatic metastasis in athymic nude or poly(IC)-treated C57BL/6 mice after ¡CVinjection ofLD-MCA-38; effect ofRS,and anti-AsGmi

    StrainAthymic

    nu/nu

    BALB/c-nu/nuTreatment

    invivoRSCAnti-AsGM,cNoneNo.of

    mice7

    79Mean12 40015No.

    of liverfoci/mouse"Median2

    4000Range0-59 4000-60%

    P* colonization57

    0.0005 10022

    C57BL/6C57BL/6NonePoly(IC)rfRS'Polype/

    +Poly(lC)"+RSCanti-AsGMir55666150340023561380400140014-3700-134000-8138-4000.00150.0001NSr"1002010050100

    " Number of liver foci was determined 14 days after tumor injection for all groups except BALB/c-nu/nu mice which was determined 21 days after tumor injection.* Wilcoxon rank sum test; compared to control.' RS or anti-AsGMI (25 ¡i\)was injected i.p. into mice I day before and 3 days after injection of 2.5 X 10' LD-MCA-38 tumor cells into the ICV.d C57BL/6 mice were given i.p. injections of 200 ng poly(IC) 1 day after injection of 2.5 x 10' LD-MCA-38 tumor cells into the ICV.' NS, not significant.

    1001908070601

    5°§40-viM

    30

    2010n.\^\

    O —¿�ONu/nu•O\ •¿�•¿�Nu/nu+anti-AsGI•

    1\•0i

    V^S***SN^•coo0

    Table 6 Effects ofpoly(IC) treatment on survival ofC57BL/6 mice giren LD-MCA-38 tumor cells by ICV route

    10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80DAYSPOSTLD-MCA-38 INJECTION

    90 100

    Fig. 2. RS or anti-AsGMi (25 ¿il)was injected i.p. into athymic nu/nu mice 1day before and 3 days after injection of 2.5 x 10! LD-MCA-38 tumor cells into

    the ICV and survival was determined.

    O—OC57BI/6

    •¿�•¿�Polyl-C C57BI/6\ A A Polyl-C C57BI/6+anti-AsGM1

    -t- -I-

    20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100110120130DAYSPOSTLD-MCA-38 INJECTION

    Fig. 3. C57BL/6 mice were given i.p. injections of 200 ^g poly(IC) 1 day afterinjection of 2.5 x 10* LD-MCA-38 tumor cells into the ICV. RS or anti-AsGMi

    (25 M')was injected i.p. into C57BL/6 mice 1 day before and 3 days after injectionof 2.5 x 10* LD-MCA-38 tumor cells into the ICV. Survival was determined in

    all three groups.

    creased life span if given 8 days after tumor inoculation but lostits effect if given 14 days after tumor inoculation (Table 6).

    DISCUSSION

    In the present study, we correlated the ability of the liver andits subpopulations from immunocompetent, immunostimu-lated, and congenitally immunodeficient mice to resist colon-derived tumor colonization after ICV administration of LD-MCA-38 tumor cells and lyse or inhibit colon tumor growth invitro. We demonstrated that (a) NPC from immunocompetent

    Treatmentinvivo"None

    Poly(IC)NonePoly(IC)NonePoly(IC)Day

    oftreatment814No.

    ofmice9

    68

    87

    7Mean

    survival(days)34.5

    72.534.778.440.238.0Median

    survival(days)38.077.0

    34.572.538.035.0P"0.0001

    0.0001NS

    " C57BL/6 mice were given injections of 2.5 X 10' LD-MCA-38 tumor cellsinto the ICV and treated i.p. with either phosphate-buffered saline or 200 ngpoly(IC) 1, 8. and 14 days later.

    Wilcoxon rank sum test; compared to control.

    C57BL/6 mice although containing AsGM)-positive liver cellshad little or no cytotoxic activity but did exert cytostatic activityagainst freshly excised LD-MCA-38 in vitro; (b) AsGMi-posi-tive liver cells from athymic nude mice were cytotoxic andexhibited augmented cytostatic activity against LD-MCA-38 invitro and suppressed the colonization of the liver by LD-MCA-38 cells; (e) AsGMi-positive liver cells from poly(IC)-treatedC57BL/6 mice also were cytotoxic and exhibited augmentedcytostatic activity against LD-MCA-38 in vitro and inhibitedthe invasion of LD-MCA-38 tumor cells into the liver.

    Spontaneous metastasis initially involves local invasion fromthe primary neoplasm and penetration of the tumor cells intothe lumen of blood vessels (28, 29). However, there are fewmurine tumors that spontaneously metastasize to the liver.Those that do are reticuloendothelial sarcomas such as M 5076and RCS2 which are histologically different from colon tumors(8, 30). Transplantable mouse colon tumors such as MCA-38and MCA-26 cells do not spontaneously metastasize to the liverbut when injected into the ICV can form hepatic foci (11, 31).Colonization or experimental metastasis represents only a portion of the metastatic cascade, the entrapment and growth inthe hepatic microenvironment. Therefore, this model is suitableto assess the role of effector cells in the liver cells to controlcolon-derived hepatic metastasis.

    In our previous studies ( 11), we demonstrated that LD-MCA-38 tumor cells injected into the ICV of conventional micecolonized the liver in a stepwise and reproducible fashion. Thismodel offered several advantages over other previously described systems of experimental metastasis. It more closelyfollowed the normal pathway of human colon tumors than theintrasplenic model and required no splenectomy after tumorinoculation. MCA-26 administered by the ICV route also resulted in colonization of the liver (31). However, this tumor

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  • SUPPRESSION OF HEPATIC METASTASIS BY AsGM1* LIVER CELLS

    formed a diffuse pattern of metastasis in the liver which couldnot be easily quantitated.

    Our previous results (27) have shown that untreated C57BL/6 mice do mount an antimetastatic response in vivo against LD-MCA-38 tumor since anti-AsGMi treatment significantly reduced their life span from 35 to 17 days. In addition, NPCfrom C57BL/6 mice exerted cytostatic but not cytotoxic activityagainst LD-MCA-38 cells in vitro. However, NPC from thesemice can lyse the standard NK target YAC-1 and lysis could beabrogated by prior treatment with anti-AsGM, (14, 20). Itoh etal. (17) demonstrated using immunofluorescence that non-adherent NPC from C57BL/6 mice contained 18% AsGM1-positive lymphocytes. Thus, resident AsGMi-positive cells present in the livers of conventional C57BL/6 mice do not exert adirect cytotoxic effect on freshly excised tumor cells in shortterm 4-h assays. Other studies have also shown that freshlyexcised tumor cells are resistant to natural cytotoxic activity(32, 33). The resident cytostatic activity exhibited by AsGM,NPC from conventional mice in vitro may not prevent tumorimplantation or colonization of the liver but may instead contribute to suppression of tumor growth. However, the cytostaticactivity displayed by NPC does not appear to be due to conventional NK cells since NPC from NK-deficient beige mice wereas cytostatic against LD-MCA-38 as those from their conventional littermates. Furthermore, no difference was seen in thesurvival of beige mice compared to their matched littermates inresponse to ICV-administered LD-MCA-38 cells (data notshown). It is known that AsGM, cells exist in the livers of micedevoid of NK activity (21, 22).

    Wiltrout et al. (34) have shown that anti-AsGNn treatment of

    C57BL/6 mice exhibited increased formation of experimentalmetastasis in the lung and induced metastasis in the liver afteri.v. challenge with B16 melanoma. This increased metastasiscoincided with decreased blood, spleen, and liver NK (YAC-1)activity. In contrast to LD-MCA-38 tumor cells, B16 tumorcells are from a cultured cell line which is usually sensitive toNK cytotoxicity. Since cultured tumor cells tend to drift fromtheir original phenotype (35), LD-MCA-38 may be a morerelevant tumor to study. Furthermore, LD-MCA-38 tumor cellsgrown in culture (CD-MCA-38 cells) do not produce hepaticcolonies following ICV injection. This inability of CD-MCA-38 cells to colonize the liver is not the result of susceptibilityto AsGMi-positive cells since the abrogation of in vivo AsGM¡activity did not result in colonization of the liver (data notshown). The reason for the lack of colonization by CD-MCA-38 cells may be more dependent on other properties of thetumor such as their decreased motility rather than an increasein susceptibility to immune attack (36).

    Nude mice have a significantly greater capacity to resisttumor colonization than untreated conventional mice. The liverfrom nude mice may more efficiently suppress or prevent thetumor from initially seeding the liver. In this regard, the liverof C57BL/6-/ÕH//1Hmice can clear '"In-LD-MCA-38 cells at afaster rate than the liver of C57BL/6-HH/+. Furthermore, whennude mice were pretreated with anti-AsGMi antibody, then thesemice survived about the same length of time as anti-AsGMi-treated conventional mice (19.5 versus 17 days, respectively).Since the cytotoxic and cytostatic activity in the liver of nudemice reappeared 7 days after cessation of antibody treatment(data not shown), this suggests that AsGM,-positive cells fromnude mice inhibit tumor implantation or early tumor growthbut not established tumors.

    There are many reports that demonstrate that N K cells fromnude mice have greater cytotoxicity than from conventional

    mice (37, 38). However, more efficient cytotoxicity may not beentirely responsible for the antimetastatic effect since splenicNK cells from nude mice which have greater cytotoxicity againstYAC-1 cells than spleen from conventional mice still do notlyse freshly excised LD-MCA-38 cells. It is likely the microen-vironment of liver from nude mice may be different from thespleen. In this regard, NPC from nude mice produced detectableIFN-«//i(~20-40 units/ml) in culture while spleen cells do not(data not shown). We speculate that hepatic NK cells fromnude mice are activated in situ in part by local production ofIFN-«//3which broadens their specificity and directly lyses LD-MCA-38 cells. This is consistent with the fact that freshlyexcised tumors have been shown to be susceptible to IFN-activated NK cells (32, 33).

    The interferon inducer, poly(IC), injected into C57BL/6 miceinduced cytotoxicity and augmented cytostasis against LD-MCA-38 tumor cells in vitro. Furthermore, the number ofhepatic foci in the liver of poly(IC)-treated mice was significantly reduced when measured 14 days after tumor inoculation.When mice were given anti-AsGM, prior to poly(IC), then the

    number of hepatic foci increased to those of untreated mice.Poly(IC) treatment of mice bearing covert or micrometastasis(day 8) was also effective (Table 6). In contrast, poly(IC) hadno effect if administered to mice bearing visible hepatic tumors(day 14). AsGMi-positive cells have been shown to contributeto the therapeutic efficacy of IL-2 against MCA sarcoma soonafter implantation. However, once tumors were established,AsGMi-positive cells had no detectable role in mediating tumorregression (39). As in the case with nude mice, AsGMI-positivecells from poly(IC)-treated mice may influence tumor implantation but have little or no influence on established tumors.

    Kupffer cells did not exhibit antitumor activity in vitro. Ad-NPC from nude mice which consist of greater than 90% Kupffercells did not lyse or prevent the proliferation of LD-MCA-38cells (Tables 4 and 5). Furthermore, the administration of anti-AsGivn into mice or treatment of NPC with anti-AsGM, pluscomplement does not abolish the number of Kupffer cells ortheir phagocytic activity (14, 17). Anti-AsGMi also does notinhibit the tumoricidal activity of macrophages (40). AsGMitreatment of nude mice led to increased numbers of hepatic focibut no extrahepatic métastasessuggesting that other mechanisms may operate to prevent the release of tumor from theliver.

    In conclusion, the experiments in this paper indicate thatAsGM,-positive cells in the liver from conventional mice do notprevent tumor implantation but have the capacity to slow focaltumor growth. In contrast, AsGM|-positive cells in the liverfrom nude or poly(IC)-treated mice which differ from conventional AsGMi-positive liver cells can suppress tumor implantation or early tumor growth.

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    The authors wish to thank Paul Evans and Norman Paolini for theirexcellent technical help.

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  • 1990;50:1834-1840. Cancer Res Stefan A. Cohen, Shie-pon Tzung, Ralph J. Doerr, et al. Colon-derived Experimental Hepatic MetastasisPolyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid-treated Mice in Suppressing

    Positive Liver Cells from Athymic Nude orM1Role of Asialo-G

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