Romanticism and the Romantic PoetsAlex Pollard, Khloe Webb, Maeve Sockwell, Rachel Vasilyev, and Meghan BelleroseE Block
What is Romanticism?Romanticism is a literary, intellectual, and artistic movement that began in the late 18th century.It began in England and Germany, then it spread throughout Europe and America.Imagination, individualism, emotion, and freedom from rules of form are focal points of romanticism.Common characteristics of romantic literatureinclude solidarity, worship of nature, imagination above reason, and beauty.
Samuel Coleridge(October 21, 1772- July 25 1834) Addicted to Opium from taking laudanum to cure illnesses as a young child. Good friends with Wordsworth-- another Romantic Poet.Father was a vicar of a parish and wanted Coleridge to become a clergyman--thus he attended Jesus College, U of Cambridge in 1791 with the intention of building a future in the Church of England. Leader of the British Romantic movement.His (Coleridges) views, however, began to change over the course of his first year at Cambridge. He became a supporter of William Frend, a Fellow at the college whose Unitarian beliefs made him a controversial figure.
Samuel Coleridge (cont.)While at Cambridge, Coleridge also accumulated a large debt, which his brothers eventually had to pay off (Due to a rampant addiction to Opium he acquired early on in his life). Financial problems continued to plague him throughout his life, and he constantly depended on the support of others.Lyrical Ballads. This collection is considered the first great work of the Romantic school of poetry and contains Coleridge's famous poem, "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner." -- work of collaboration between Wordsworths poems and ColeridgeColeridge served as Emerson's primary guide to German philosophy--To carry on the feelings of childhood into the powers of manhood; to combine the child's sense of wonder and novelty with the appearances, which every day. . . had rendered familiar. . . this is the character and privilege of genius, and one of the marks which distinguish genius from talents. --Coleridge, (Biographia literaria)Very similar philosophy to that of Emerson-- both idolizing the youth and explaining how youthfulness and openness to new ideas are what true genius is.
Coleridge in his later years; having suffered from a rampant opium addiction he spent the last years of his life living in the home of his doctor, and maintained an acclaimed reputation among many a young romantic.
Percy Shelley(August 4 1792 July 8 1822 )Famously associated with Lord Byron; his wife wrote the acclaimed Frankenstein because of a suggestion by Byron.Began developing idealist and other controversial philosophies during college; thus conventional school was a struggle and he was consequently expelled for his unorthodox ideas.Similar to many romantic poets, Shelley believed strongly in the power of nature-- Emerson was greatly influenced by his poetry and ideas in this sense.
Matthew Arnold(Dec 1822- April 1888)Born in Laleham, Middlesex, EnglandBritish poet, critic and educator -worked for 35 years as gov. school inspector -taught poetry at Oxford (1857- 1867) -wrote many essaysKnown as a sage writerFamily involved in literature -Dad was headmaster of Rugby School -Brother was literary professor -Other brother was novelistClose friend of/inspired by Wordsworth
Writing TopicsChristianity/Importance of faithLiteral and figurative beautyImportance of education
William Wordsworth(April 7, 1770 - April 23, 1850)English romantic poetBorn in Cumberland, EnglandLost both parents as a young boy and had to take care of his neurotic sister DorthyPublished Lyrical Ballads in 1798 with Samuel Taylor Coleridgesimple stories about their lives written in common languageCompleted his major literary work, an autobiographical poem, The Prelude, in 1850Wrote many poems expressing his love of natureLast decades of his life he was Poet Laureate of EnglandSome of Emersons ideas were influenced by Wordsworths essays and poemsAfter his resignation as minister in 1832, Emerson went on a tor of Europe where he met William Wordsworth, along with Carlyle, J Mill, and Coleridge
"I Wandered Lonley as a Cloud"
I wandered lonely as a cloudThat floats on high o'er vales and hillsWhen all at once I saw a crowd,A host, of golden daffodils;Beside the lake, beneath the trees,Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.Wordsworth
Nonconformist Romantic Writer andPhilosopher
"I must create a system or be enslaved by another man's."
ChildhoodBorn November 28, 1757 in London (d.Aug.12, 1827)Part of a very religious familyIntellectually ahead of his peersVery good writer and artist by age 10Claimed to have seen "angles in a tree"Also claimed to see them in fields and had reported experiences with God
Early CareerWorked closely with wife as his assistantOften used simple AABB ABAB rhyme schemes along with standard four lined stanzasCombinedvisualswith his writing to deepen the impact of his work on the readerLater CareerOutspoken nonconformistBased his poetry and writings on imagination rather than reasonUsed observations on man's inner natureLater developed his own, very complex, mythologyThis complex mythology became the subject for much of his later workMany people claimed that he had gone mad, including William Woodsworth
Lord ByronAt birth, named "George Gordan Byron"Born January 22,1788Born in London, EnglandRaisedFamous in his lifetime for his many exotic affairsCreated his own cult of a personality: "Byronic Hero"Known for height (6'2) & good looksGreat Romantic impact on EnglandDied from a feverApril 19 1824
Lord Byron (Cont.)Attended Trinity College (1805-1808)In November 1806 he distributed around Southwell his first book of poetryFugitive Pieces -a collection of his poems inspired by his early infatuationsIn 1809 Byron's first major poetic work,English Bards, and Scotch Reviewers. A Satire, was published anonymously in an edition of one thousand copies.In March 1809 took seat in "House of Lords" & attended sessions of the ParliamentClose relationship with Percy ShelleyMost famous poetry work "She Walks In Beauty"Considered a leader of the Romanticism Revolution
John KeatsBorn in Finsbury Pavement, England.Born October 31, 1795As a child, sacrificed medical ambitions to become a poet.Work not well known until 4 years prior to deathMost of his poems were inspired by Lord Byron.Died February 23, 1821Death caused by Tuberculosis
Keats (cont.)-mortransient sensation or passion vs enduring artdream or vision vs realityjoy vs melancholythe ideal vs the realmortal vs immortallife vs deathseparation vs connectionbeing immersed in passion vs desiring to escape passion
- Focused on beauty & truth - Imagination - Excessive use of imagery - Advocated living "the ripest, fullest experience that one is capable of"; he believed that what determines truth is experience.
CITATIONS Information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Wordsworth http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/cs6/rom.html http://www.eduquan.com/fanwen/362/696/20070729113526.html http://www.clickinks.com/The-Life-and-Works-of-Ralph-Waldo-Emerson.html http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/179http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Taylor_Coleridge
http://www.streetdirectory.com/travel_guide/103419/poetry/lord_byrons_poem_she_walks_in_beauty.html Photos: http://rosswarner.com/Walden.html (Walden photo) http://www.wordsworthclassics.com/cov/poet/1840225351.jpg (lyrical ballads photo) http://www.unl.edu/Corvey/html/Images/WavesBreakingOnALeeShore.jpg (Romanticism photo)
http://famouspoetsandpoems.com/pictures/middle/matthew_arnold.jpg (Arnold photo)