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1 ALGAL SITUATION IN MARINE WATERS SURROUNDING SWEDEN AlgA ware Oceanographic Unit No 6, 8 – 13 June 2009 Sammanfattning Prymnesiophyten Chrysochromulina spp.* blommade i Skagerrak och i Kattegatt. I övrigt var kiselalgen Pseudo-nitzschia spp.* vanlig i Skagerrak. Kalkflagellaten Emiliania huxleyi, som är känd för att orsaka vackert turkosfärgat vatten men i övrigt är ofarlig, blommade vid P2 i Skagerraks kustområde. Turkost vatten uppmärksammades vid flera stationer, men bara ett fåtal celler av E. huxleyi fanns i proverna så blomningen kan ha befunnit sig under 10 meters djup. I Kattegatt var kiselalgerna Pseudo-nitzschia spp.* och Phaeodactylum tricornutum vanliga utöver Chrysochromulina*- blomningen. Intressanta fluorescens maxima mättes upp i Skagerrak och Kattegatt mellan 15-20 meter, men alla integrerade (0-20 m) värden låg inom medel för denna månaden. I Östersjön hade mängden av cyanobakterien Aphanizomenon spp. ökat rejält jämfört med den förra provtagningen. De senaste dagarna har man dessutom kunnat se ytansamlingar med hjälp av satellitbilder, http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly. jsp?d=7826&l=sv Abstract The prymnesiophyte Chrysochromulina spp.* was blooming in the Skagerrak and Kattegat areas. The diatom genus Pseudo- nitzschia* was common in the Skagerrak. The calcium flagellate Emiliania huxleyi, non toxic but known to colour the water beautifully turquoise, bloomed at P2 at the Skagerrak coast. The turquoise water was observed at more stations, but the bloom may have been below 10 meters because only a few cells of E. huxleyi were found in the samples. Apart from the Chrysochromulina* bloom in the Kattegat, the diatoms Pseudo-nitzschia spp.* and Phaeodactylum tricornutum were common in this area. Interesting fluorescence maxima were found between 15-20 meters throughout the Skagerrak and Kattegat areas, although the integrated (0-20 m) values were within average for this month. In the Baltic Sea the amount of the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon spp. had increased a lot since the last sampling took place. These last days surface accumulations have been visible on satellite images, http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly. jsp?d=7826&l=en 9 o E 12 o E 15 o E 18 o E 21 o E 54 o N 55 o N 56 o N 57 o N 58 o N 59 o N 60 o N Date: 2009 − 06 − 08 to 2009 − 06 − 13 A D P Pc N Az Cc Pm Plankton station High chl−a >4.5 chl−a >2.3 <=4.5 chl−a >=1.1 <=2.3 chl−a >=0.4 <1.1 Low chl−a <0.4 No chl−a sampling Algae harmful to fish Alexandrium spp. Dinophysis spp. Pseudo−nitzschia Pseudochattonella Nodularia Aphanizomenon Chrysochromulina Prorocentrum min Å17 Å15 Å13 Släggö P2 Fladen Anholt E W Landskrona BY1 BY2 Hanö Bight BY4 BY5 BCS III−10 BY10 BY15 BY20 BY32 BY38 N14 Falkenberg REF M1V1 Cc Cc Cc Cc Az Cc Az Cc AzCc AzCc Az Cc Az Cc

Sammanfattning Prymnesiophyten …/algsit09_6.pdfSammanfattning Prymnesiophyten Chrysochromulina spp.* blommade i Skagerrak och i Kattegatt. I övrigt var kiselalgen Pseudo-nitzschia

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1

ALGAL SITUATION INMARINE WATERS SURROUNDING SWEDEN

AlgAware Oceanographic Unit No 6, 8 13 June 2009

SammanfattningPrymnesiophyten Chrysochromulina spp.* blommade i Skagerrak och i Kattegatt. I vrigt var kiselalgen Pseudo-nitzschia spp.* vanlig i Skagerrak. Kalkflagellaten Emiliania huxleyi, som r knd fr att orsaka vackert turkosfrgat vatten men i vrigt r ofarlig, blommade vid P2 i Skagerraks kustomrde. Turkost vatten uppmrksammades vid flera stationer, men bara ett ftal celler av E. huxleyi fanns i proverna s blomningen kan ha befunnit sig under 10 meters djup.

I Kattegatt var kiselalgerna Pseudo-nitzschia spp.* och Phaeodactylum tricornutum vanliga utver Chrysochromulina*-blomningen.

Intressanta fluorescens maxima mttes upp i Skagerrak och Kattegatt mellan 15-20 meter, men alla integrerade (0-20 m) vrden lg inom medel fr denna mnaden.

I stersjn hade mngden av cyanobakterien Aphanizomenon spp. kat rejlt jmfrt med den frra provtagningen. De senaste dagarna har man dessutom kunnat se ytansamlingar med hjlp av satellitbilder, http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7826&l=sv

AbstractThe prymnesiophyte Chrysochromulina spp.* was blooming in the Skagerrak and Kattegat areas. The diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia* was common in the Skagerrak. The calcium flagellate Emiliania huxleyi, non toxic but known to colour the water beautifully turquoise, bloomed at P2 at the Skagerrak coast. The turquoise water was observed at more stations, but the bloom may have been below 10 meters because only a few cells of E. huxleyi were found in the samples.

Apart from the Chrysochromulina* bloom in the Kattegat, the diatoms Pseudo-nitzschia spp.* and Phaeodactylum tricornutum were common in this area.

Interesting fluorescence maxima were found between 15-20 meters throughout the Skagerrak and Kattegat areas, although the integrated (0-20 m) values were within average for this month.

In the Baltic Sea the amount of the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon spp. had increased a lot since the last sampling took place. These last days surface accumulations have been visible on satellite images, http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7826&l=en

9oE 12oE 15oE 18oE 21oE 54oN

55oN

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Date: 2009 06 08 to 2009 06 13

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Pm

Plankton station

High chla >4.5

chla >2.3 =1.1 =0.4

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More detailed information on species composition and abundance

The Skagerrak

17 8th of June (open Skagerrak)A few species were present and the prymnesiophyte Chrysochromulina spp.* was the most numerous genus. Small fl agellates like the heterotrophic species Leucocryptos marina were common.

Slgg 8th of June (Skagerrak coast)Chrysochromulina spp.* was found with the highest cell numbers, and both Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima-group* and Pseudo-nitzschia seriata-group* (diatoms) were very common. Diatom and dinofl agellate species were many and several potentially toxic species were present in low amounts.

There were interesting fl uorescence peaks between 15-20 meters depth throughout the Skagerrak area. Maybe partly caused by the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi that was found in a state of bloom at the station P2. Plankton was sampled at P2 because of the turquoise water usually caused by E. huxleyi. E. huxleyi is however non toxic.

The Kattegat

N14 Falkenberg 9th of JuneThe prymnesiophyte Chrysochromulina spp.* was the most common genus and the diatom Skeletonema costatum was very numerous. The diatoms Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima-group* and the fl agellate Leucocryptos marina were common.

Anholt E 9th and 13th of MayChrysochromulina spp.* was very common at both visits, but apart from that the species composition differed a lot between the two sampling occasions. The number of species and the total cell numbers were a lot higher at the second visit. The chlorophyll a values were also higher at the second stop, at the surface it was nearly three times as high compared to the fi rst occasion. The integrated (0-20 meter) chlorophyll a value was higher as well the second time.

Emiliania huxleyi cells and small coccoliths from their cell walls lying around.

Chrysochromulina sp.

33

Selection of observed species 17 Slgg P2 N14 Anholt E Anholt E

Red=potentially toxic species 2009-06-08 2009-06-08 2009-06-08 2009-06-09 2009-06-09 2009-06-13

cells/l cells/l cells/l cells/l cells/l cells/l

Cerataulina pelagica present present

Chaetoceros decipiens present

Cylindrotheca closterium present present present

Dactyliosolen fragilissimus present present present present

Guinardia delicatula present

Guinardia flaccida present

Leptocylindrus danicus present present present

Leptocylindrus minimus present

cf. Nitzschia longissima present present

Phaeodactylum tricornutum common common common

Proboscia alata present present common

Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima-group present 70 000 common present present

Pseudo-nitzschia seriata-group 70 000 present

Rhizosolenia imbricata present present present present

Rhizosolenia setigera present present present

Skeletonema costatum complex present 158 000 common

Thalassionema nitzschioides present present present present

cf. Azadinium spinosum present present present

Ceratium fusus present common present present

Ceratium lineatum present present

Ceratium longipes present

Ceratium macroceros present present

Ceratium tripos present present present present present

Cladopyxis claytonii present

Dinophysis acuminata present

Dinophysis norvegica present present

Dinophysis rotundata present

Gyrodinium flagellare present present

Heterocapsa rotundata present present present present

Heterocapsa spp. present present

Heterocapsa triquetra present present present present

Karlodinium micrum present present present

Lingulodinium polyedrum present

Peridiniella danica present

Protoperidinium conicum present

Protoperidinium steinii present present

Scrippsiella complex present

Chrysochromulina spp. 828 000 209 000 385 000 70 000 85 000

Emiliania huxleyi present 2 350 000 present

Cryptomonadales spp. 65 000 common common common 178 000

Eutreptiella spp. present present

Pyramimonas spp. present present present present

Apedinella radians present

Dinobryon faculiferum present present present present common

Quadricoccus euryhalinicus present

Anabaena spp. present common

Nodularia spumigena present

Calliacantha longicaudata present present present common

Calliacantha natans present present present present

Ebria tripartita present present present present

Leucocryptos marina 55 000 present 87 000 common 154 000

Telonema subtilis present present common present

Mesodinium rubrum present present

Strombidium spp. present present present

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The Baltic Sea

Weak surface accumulations of cyanobacteria were visible in the Han bight and around Gotland on the 21st and 22nd of june, interpreting satellite images using BAWS, (Baltic Algal Watch System) http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7826&l=en.

Arkona Basin BY2 and Bornholm Basin BY5 10th of JuneThe prymnesiophyte Chrysochromulina polylepis*, the prasinophyte Pyramimonas spp. and chryptophytes dominated the phytoplankton samples. The amount of the fi lamentous cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon spp. had increased a lot compared to the previous sampling and traces of the fi lamentous cyanobacteria Anabaena spp. and Nodularia spumigena* were observed. The integrated chlorophyll a concentrations were within average for this month.

South East Baltic BCS III-10 10th of JuneThe phytoplankton situation was very similar to the one at the stations above apart from the fact that C. polylepis* was less abundant and the dinofl agellate Dinophysis norvegica* was common. The integrated chlorophyll a concentration was within average.

Eastern Gotland Basin BY15 11th of June and Western Gotland Basin BY 38 12th of JuneThese were the stations where the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon spp. was the most abundant this month. The prymnesiophyte Chrysochromulina polylepis*, the chrysophyte Dinobryon faculiferum and the prasinophyte Pyramimonas spp. were very numerous and the dinofl agellates Dinophysis acuminata and D. norvegica* were common. The cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena* was present at BY38. The integrated chlorophyll a concentrations were within average for this month.

Kalmar Sound Ref. M1-V1 12th of JuneThe amount of the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon spp. was high and the prymnesiophyte Chrysochromulina polylepis* and the prasinophyte Pyramimonas spp. were found with high cell numbers. Cryptohytes were very common and Heterocapsa triquetra was the most common dinofl agellate. The dinofl agellates Dinophysis acuminata*, D. norvegica* and D. rotundata* were present.

Phytoplankton analysis and text by:Ann-Turi Skjevik

The cyanobacterium Aphanizo-menon sp.

Dinophysis rotundata

55

Selection of observed species BY2 BY5 BCS III-10 BY15 BY38 Ref. M1-V1

Red=potentially toxic species 2009-06-10 2009-06-10 2009-06-10 2009-06-11 2009-06-12 2009-06-121 quantified in m/l cells/l cells/l cells/l cells/l cells/l cells/l

Chaetoceros danicus present present

Chaetoceros impressus present present present

Chaetoceros throndsenii present

Dinophysis acuminata common present present

Dinophysis norvegica present present present common present present

Dinophysis rotundata present

Gyrodinium flagellare present

Heterocapsa rotundata present common common common present present

Heterocapsa spp. present 77 000 common common common present

Heterocapsa triquetra common

Karlodinium micrum present

Katodinium glaucum present

Lingulodinium polyedrum present

Peridiniella danica present present present present present

Chrysochromulina spp. 966 000 1 560 000 215 000 224 000 355 000 510 000

Cryptomonadales spp. 96 000 150 000 common common 99 000 76 000

Dinobryon faculiferum present common present common 140 000 present

Pyramimonas spp. 160 000 420 000 57 000 57 000 170 000 233 000

Anabaena spp. present present

Aphanizomenon spp. 3.5 2 3 11 12 8

Nodularia spumigena present present

Calliacantha longicaudata present present

Calliacantha natans present common present present

Ebria tripartita present present

Leucocryptos marina present present present

Mesodinium rubrum present present common present present

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Om klorofylldiagrammenKlorofyll a r ett mtt p mngden vxtplankton. Prover tas frn ett antal djup frn U/F Argos. Data presenteras bde frn de fasta djupen och som medelvrden 0-20 m. Utver resultaten frn laboratorieanalyserna av vattenprover mts klorofyll a som fluorescens frn ett automatiskt instrument som snks ned frn fartyget. P s stt kan djupt liggande, ibland, tunna lager av vxtplankton observeras.

About the chlorophyll graphsChlorophyll a is sampled from several depths from the R/V Argos. Data is presented both from the discrete depths and as an average 0-20 m. In addition to the laboratory analysis from the water samples chlorophyll fluorescence is measured in continuous depth profiles from the ship. This is a way to observe thin layes of phytoplankton occuring below the surface.

1111

Om AlgAwareSMHI genomfr ca en gng per mnad expeditioner med U/F Argos i stersjn och Vsterhavet. Resultat baserade p semikvantitativ mikroskopanalys av planktonprover samt klorofyllmtningar presenteras kortfattat i denna rapport. Infor-mation frn SMHI:s satellitvervakning av algblomningar finns p www.smhi.se.

About AlgAwareSMHI carries out monthly cruises with R/V Argos in the Baltic and the Kattegat/Skagerrak. Results from semi quantitative microscopic analysis of phytoplankton samples as well as chlorophyll measurements are presented in brief in this report. Information from SMHI:s satellite monitoring of algal blooms is found on www.smhi.se.

Art / Species Gift / Toxin Eventuella symptom Clinical symptomsAlexandrium spp. Paralytic

shellfish poisoning (PSP)

Milda symptom:Inom 30 min.:Stickningar eller en knsla av bedvning runt lpparna, somsprids gradvis till ansiktet och nacken; stickningar i fingertoppar och tr;Huvudvrk; yrsel, illamende, krkningar, diarrExtrema symptom: Muskelfrlamning; andningssvrigheter; knsla av att kvvas;Man kan vara dd inom 2-24 timmar efter att ha ftt i sig giftet, p grund av att andningsmuskulaturen frlamas.

Mild case:Within 30 min:tingling sensation ro numbness around lips, gradually spreading to face and neck; prickly sensation in fingertips and toes; headake, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea.Extreme caseMuscular paralysis; pronounced respiratory difficulty; choking sensation; death trough respiratory paralysis may occur within 2-24 hours after ingestion.

Dinophysis spp. Diarrehetic shellfish poisoning (DSP)

Milda symptom:Efter cirka 30 minuter till ngra timmar: yrsel, illamende, krkningar, diarr, magontExtrema symptom: Upprepad exponering kan orsaka cancer

Mild case:Within 30 min-a few hours:dizziness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain. Extreme case:Repeated exposure may cause cancer.

Pseudochattonella spp.

Fish toxin Lg celltthet:Ingen pverkan.Hg celltthet:Fiskens glar skadas, fisken dr.

Low cell numbers: No effect on fish.High cell numbers:Fish death due to gill damage.

Pseudo- nitzschia spp.

Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP)

Milda symptom:Efter 3-5 timmar: yrsel, illamende, krkningar, diarr, magkramperExtrema symptom: Yrsel, hallucinationationer, frvirring, frlust av korttidsminnet, kramper

Mild case:Within 3-5 hours: dizziness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal cramps.Extreme case:dizziness, hallucinations, confusion, loss of memory, cramps.

versikt av potentiellt skadliga alger och det aktuella giftets effekt. Overview of potentially harmful algae and effects of toxins. Manual on harmful marine microalgae (2003 - UNESCO Publishing).

Kartan p framsidan visar viktat medelvrde fr klorofyll a, g/l (0-20 m) vid de olika stationerna. Frekomst av skadliga alger vid stationer dr arter analyseras markeras med symbol. D cirkeln r tom innebr detta att stationen inte provtagits.

The map on the front page shows weighted mean of chlorophyll a, g/l (0-20 m) at sampling stations. Presence of harmful algae at stations where species analysis is performed is shown with a symbol An empty cirkel indicates that there has been no sampling at that station.

12

www.smhi.se