Section a Practicals

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    C.C.H.S. PHYSICS PRACTICALS CLASS-XII EXPERIMENT No. 1 Date-

    Aim-To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current.

    Apparatus-The given resistance wire, an ammeter, a voltmeter, a rheostat, a cell or battery, one-way key, meter scale,

    connecting wires.

    Circuit Diaram

    !ormu"a #se$

    According to Ohm's law, the potential difference across the ends of 'a conductor is directly proportional to the current

    flowing through it provided the physical conditions of the conductor and its temperature remain the same. Let be the

    current flowing through a conductor and ! be the potential difference across its ends, then

    ! or ! " # or # " !$ , where # is a constant of proportionality and is called resistance of the

    conductor. t depends upon material of the wire and its dimensions %length and radius&.A graph between current along -ais and potential difference ! along y -ais comes out to be a straight line and the

    slope % V/ I & of this line gives the value of the resistance of the given wire.

    %&ser'atio(s

    Step ".To find out range, least count and (ero error of instruments )

    #ange of ammeter - .......... A, Least count of ammeter " .......... A

    #ange of !oltmeter -.......... !, Least count of voltmeter - .......... !

    *ero error of the ammeter, e, ".......... A

    *ero error of the voltmeter, e+ -.......... !

    Step-)

    *ariatio( i( pote(tia"+'o"tae $i,,ere(ce * it curre(t I

    l.o

    .

    Ampere reading %Amp& !oltmeter reading %in volt& !$ " # %in ohm&

    Observed orrected Observed ! orrected !

    +.

    /.

    0.

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    step /.Length of wire, l "..........cm.

    Pae 0 1

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    C.C.H.S. PHYSICS PRACTICALS CLASS-XII

    Ca"cu"atio(s. 5y choosing suitable scales, plot a graph between current along -ais and potential difference !

    along y-ais. The graph comes out to be a straight line as shown in 6ig. 7etermine the slope % V/ I & of thegraph which gives the value of resistance of the given wire. Thus, # " lope of !- graph " % V/ I & " 5$A "8. 9.

    The resistance per unit length " #$ l " 8. 9$cm.

    Resu"t- The resistance per cm of the wire by plotting graph between potential difference versus current is ........ 9$cm.

    Precautio(s

    l. The voltmeter and ammeter should be of proper ranges.

    /. The ammeter should be connected in series and the voltmeter should be connected in parallel with their positive

    terminals towards the positive pole of the battery and negative terminals towards the negative pole of the battery.

    0. The length of the resistance wire should be measured from where it :ust comes out of the terminals of the voltmeter.

    Sources o, Errors

    l. The resistance wire may have kinks in it.

    /. The pointers of the ammeter and voltmeter may lie in between the marking on the scales.

    Pae 0 )

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    C.C.H.S. PHYSICS PRACTICALS CLASS-XII

    EXPERIMENT No. ) Date-

    Aim-

    To find resistance of a given wire using meter bridge and hence determine the specific resistance of its material.

    Appparatus-;eter bridge, resistance wire %length about + m& whose specific resistance is to be determined, resistance

    one-way key, :ockey, galvanometer, battery or eliminator. screw gauge, thick connecting wires, sand paper, etc.

    Circuit Diaram

    !ormu"a #se$

    %i& The unknown resistance

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    C.C.H.S. PHYSICS PRACTICALS CLASS-XIItep 0 Least count of screw gauge " 88. mm

    *ero error if any " 88.. mm %with sign&

    tep 1-

    l.o

    .

    ;ain scale

    reading %mm&

    ircular scale reading %mm& Observed diameter %mm& ;ean diameter

    %mm&

    7ivision

    coinciding

    !alue "

    division L..

    Observed orrected

    +.

    /.

    0.

    Ca"cu"atio(s

    The specific resistance of the material of the given wire is given by by > " ( d2

    4 l)X " 88. [email protected] " [email protected] value %from tables& of specific resistance, >?" 88888 [email protected]

    ercentage error "

    (

    0 )

    +??" 88.B

    Resu"t

    +. The resistance of the given wire, " ... 8 [email protected]

    Precautio(s

    +. All the brass plugs of the resistance bo should be made tight by giving them screw motion.

    /. The :ockey should be made to slide gently on the wire of the meter bridge. t should not be pressed hard on the wire

    otherwise it may change uniformity of the wire.

    0. The balance point should lie near the middle of the wire of the meter bridge. so as to minimi(e error due to end

    resistances.1. The resistance wire %whose resistance is to be determined& should not make a loop or touch at certain points.

    Causes o, Error

    +. The wire of the meter bridge may not have uniform area of cross-section throughout its entire length.

    /. The wire of meter bridge may get heated up due to passage of electric current, thus, changing resistance of the wire.

    0. 5acklash error may be present in the screw gauge due to loose fitting of the screw.

    Pae 0

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    C.C.H.S. PHYSICS PRACTICALS CLASS-XII

    EXPERIMENT No. / Date-

    Aim- To verify the laws of combination %series$parallel& of resistances using a meter bridge.

    Apparatus-A meter bridge or slide wire bridge, two resistance coils, resistance bo, one-way key, :ockey, battery or

    battery eliminator, connecting wires and sand paper.

    Circuit Diaram

    !ormu"a #se$

    Pae 0 2

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    C.C.H.S. PHYSICS PRACTICALS CLASS-XII

    %i& The resistance of a wire for resistance coil using meter bridge is given by r " ( 100ll )R , where l is lengthof the meter bridge wire from the (ero end upto null point and # is the resistance from resistance bo

    %ii& Chen two resistances r+and r/are connected in series, their combined resistance is given by rs3 r14 r)

    %iii& Chen two resistances r+and r/are connected in parallel, their combined resistance is given by rp3

    r1r2

    r1+r 2 %&ser'atio(s#esistance

    coil

    .o. #esistance

    from

    resistance bo

    %#& %ohm&

    5alancing

    length

    A7 " l %cm&

    length

    7 "

    (100ll ) #%cm&

    #esistance

    r " ( 100ll ) # %ohm&

    ;ean resistance

    %ohm&

    r+ +. r+

    /.

    0.

    r/ +. r//.

    0.

    r+and r/in

    series

    +. rs

    /.

    0.

    r+and r/in

    parallel

    +. rp/.

    0.

    Ca"cu"atio(s a($ *eri,icatio( o, Las

    %a& !erification of the law of resistances in series.;ean value of r+" 88..ohm, ;ean value of r/" 88..ohm

    ;ean value of %r+D r/& " 88..ohm,

    ;ean value of rs" 88..ohm

    Cithin eperimental errors, rs " %r+D r/&. Therefore, the law of resistances in series is verified.

    %b& !erification of the law of resistances in parallel )

    ;ean value of r+" 88..ohm, ;ean value of r/" 88..ohm

    ;ean value ofr1

    r2

    r1+r 2 " 88..ohm, ;ean value of rp" 88..ohm

    Resu"t-%i& Cithin eperimental errors, rs " %r+D r/&. Therefore, the law of combination of resistances in series stands verified.

    %ii& Cithin eperimental errors, rp3r1

    r2

    r1+r 2,. Therefore, the law of combination of resistances in parallel stands

    verified.

    Precautio(s

    +. All the brass plugs of the resistance bo should be made tight by giving them screw motion.

    /. The :ockey should be made to slide gently on the wire of the meter bridge. t should not be pressed hard on the wire

    otherwise it may change uniformity of the wire.

    0. The balance point should lie near the middle of the wire of the meter bridge. so as to minimi(e error due to end

    resistances.1. The key E in the battery circuit should remain inserted only when observations are to be taken and then the key

    should be taken out to avoid unnecessary heating of the resistance wire of the meter bridge.

    2. The resistance wire %whose resistance is to be determined& should not make a loop or touch at certain points.

    Pae 0 5

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    C.C.H.S. PHYSICS PRACTICALS CLASS-XIICauses o, Error

    +. The wire of the meter bridge may not have uniform area of cross-section throughout its entire length.

    /. The wire of meter bridge may get heated up due to passage of electric current, thus, changing resistance of the wire.

    0. 5acklash error may be present in the screw gauge due to loose fitting of the screw.

    EXPERIMENT No. Date-

    Aim-To compare the emf of two given primary cells %7aniell cell and Leclanche cell& using potentiometer.

    Apparatus- otentiometer, 7aniell cell, Leclanche cell, ammeter, voltmeter, galvanometer, battery, or battery-

    eliminator, rheostat, resistance bo, one-way key, two-way key, :ockey, connecting wires and a piece of sand paper.

    Circuit Diaram

    !ormu"a use$

    Let l1 and l2 be the balancing lengths of the potentiometer wire using cells fo emfFs G +and G/respectively.

    Then according to the principles of potentiometer, G+" E l1 and G/" E l2 where k is a constant of

    proportionality. 7ividing eHuations, we getE

    1

    E2"

    l1

    l2

    %&ser'atio(s

    Step ".

    ''o determine potential differences G, G+, and G/ .

    Least count of the ammeter " ......... A

    Least