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Socialism

SocialismOrigins and Development •Socialism changes as things get better •Split occurred in the early 20th Century •Communism vs Socialism •Socialism spreads in 20th Century

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Text of SocialismOrigins and Development •Socialism changes as things get better •Split occurred in the...

  • Socialism

  • Introduction

    • Opposition to capitalism, provide a more humane alternative

    • Emerges as industrialization grows

    • Things were bad

    • Utopianism plays a roll

    Bullet 2-Living conditions were terrible

    Bullet 3-Things could be good with sharing and cooperation

  • Origins and Development

    • Socialism changes as things get better

    • Split occurred in the early 20th Century

    • Communism vs Socialism

    • Socialism spreads in 20th Century

    • Decline in late 20th Century

    Bullet 1-Trade unions and working class groups grow

    Bullet 2- Lenin the Bolsheviks vs Social Democracy

    Bullet 3-Africa, Asia, Latin America

  • Core Themes• Three Ways to

    Understand

    • Economic Model

    • Labor

    Movement

    • Political Creed/Ideology

    Economic-collectivism or social planning

    Labor-The interests of the worker or masses

    Political-Combination of ideas

  • Community

    •Unification overcome issues

    •“No man is an Island”

    •Importance of fraternity

    Bullet 1-Power in Numbers

    Bullet 2-John Donne -Community is vital

    Bullet 3- “Comrades, brothers, sisters” common bond of humanity

  • Community

    • Human nature can change

    • Social groups help understand

    ourselves

    • Concern for what we can become

    • Especially important with minorities

    Bullet 1-Differs from Liberalism and Conservatism
Bullet 4- African and Asian Societies were already community based

  • Cooperation•Cooperation over

    Competition

    •Humans can be incentivized by morals

    •Producers and consumers benefit

    Bullet 1-Competition pits us against each other, aggression, and selfishness

    Bullet 2- Capitalism encourages material cravings, socialism encourages empathy

    Bullet 3- Capitalism focuses just on the producers, need to focus on both

  • Equality

    • Social Equality/Equaltiy of Outcome

    • Equality upholds Justice

    • Equality supports community

    • Need satisification is basis of success

    Bullet 1- Not everyone is born identical

    Bullet 2- Unequal treatment in society is worst kind

    Bullet 3- Identify with each other and work together

  • Equality

    •Marxism and Communisn believe in absolute equality

    •Democratic Socialist believe in relative equality

    Bullet 1- Abolish private property and establish public ownership

    Bullet 2- Welfare state and progressive taxes

  • Class Politics• Social Classes are the biggest divisor in

    society

    • Classes are the defining feature of history

    •Working class is different

    • Classes aren’t permanent nor necessary

    Bullet 2- Must understand to understand history

    Bullet 3- Focused on struggle and emancipation

  • Class Politics

    • Capital v. Labor

    • Bourgeoisie

    • Proletariat

    •White Collar v. Blue Collar

    • Declining since the 50’s

    Bullet 1- Boug- Owners, Pro.-Workers (Can’t Get Along) Marxism

    Bullet 2- Democratic Socialists

  • Common Ownership• Problems stem from private property

    • Property is unjust

    • Encourages materialism

    • Divisive

    • Right to property balanced with community

  • Common Ownership

    • Nationalization popular with Lenin

    • Soviet Union adopted state property

    • Nationalization has occurred in the

    western world

    • Very Selective

    Bullet 1- Extension of state ownership over private

    Bullet 3- UK Nationalized energy producers in 1945-51 to help regulate economy

  • Roads to Socialism•2 arguments in

    socialism

    •What goals should socialism strive for?

    •How do we achieve socialism?

  • 1. Revolutionary Socialism

    • Early socialist said only way possible

    • Either small group or entire class

    • Industrialzation brought poverty

    •Working class had no political influence

    • Democracy restricted

    Bullet 2- Blanqui vs Marx

    Bullet 5- Property Requirement

  • Revolutionary Socialism

    •The bourgeois is always favoring the wealthy

    •Proletariat have no choice but violent revolution

    Bullet 1- Marx

  • Revolutionary Socialism

    • Very successful in China and Latin America

    • Revolution allows you to “wipe the slate clean”

    • Force allowed new leadership to emerge

    • Military style takes over

    Bullet 2- Khmer Rouge and Year 0 in 1975

    Bullet 3- “Power resides in the barrel of a gun” Mao

  • 2. Evolutionary Socialism

    • Revolt fever waned in 19th century

    • Working class gains rights in 20th century

    • Political Action and education would

    allow socialism to emerge peacefully

    • Democratic socialists advocate working inside the government

    Bullet 2- Removal of property requirements, unions, social clubs, etc

  • Evolutionary Socialism

    • Democracy has merit

    • Extend francise, brings about equality

    • Equality works for the majority

    • Socialism is home of workers

    • Soacialists will carry out reform

  • Evolutionary Socialism

    • To appeal in democracies, must water down

    • None have held majority power

    • Reformed Capitalism

    Bullet 1- Have been in all democracies except US

  • Evolutionary Socialism•Manual Working

    Class has begun to decline

    •Socialist have had to adapt

    •Bourgeiouis Ideology pervades society

    Bullet 1-Socialism has suffered as a result

    Bullet 3- People avoid their own best interests

  • Communism •No Private

    Property

    •Common of Collective Ownership

    •3 Types of Marxism/Communism

  • 1. Classical Marxism• Developed by Karl Marx

    • Capitailism will eat iteslf, Socialism will

    replace

    • Hopes to predict future events

    • Historical Materialism-Economy

    Structures Society

    Bullet 2-Scientific analysis

  • Classical Marxism

    • Progress occurs because of internal conflict

    • Conflict between upper and lower class would lead to progress

    • Human History has long been marked by conflict

    Bullet 2- Progress means socialism

    Bullet 3- Slavery (Masters and Slave), Feudalism (Land Owner and Serf), Capitalism (Bourgeoisie and Proletariat)

  • Classical Marxism: Economics

    • Capitalism separates people from what they produce

    • Class is defined by economic power

    • Class are in charge of change

    • Relationship between classes is

    antagonistic

    Bullet 4-Can never be reconciled

  • Classical Marxism: Politics

    • Capitalism overgrown by the people

    • As division increased, people recognize

    their power

    • Revolution would be spontaneous

    • Strict Gov’t controlled by people,

    maintain progress

    Bullet 3-Upper class unable to stop it

    Bullet 4- As socialism takes hold, no need for gov’t

  • 2. Orthodox Communism

    • Developed by Lenin

    • Successful in Russia, China, and Cuba

    • Rural areas were the root, not urban

    • Leninism develops-New political party

    • Anyone not in the party, against it

    Bullet 3- Went against what Marx thought

    Bullet 4- Only the party could lead to revolution (Lead by devoted people)

  • Orthodox Communism• Stalin changes Lenin’s

    ideas

    • Stalin institutes 5 year plan

    • Capitalism is completely done away with

    • Disloyalty means purges

    Bullet 2-Rapid Industrialization, Agriculture Collectivized, must join state farms

    Bullet 4- Locked in Gulags in Siberia, Millions killed

  • Neo-Marxism• Eastern Marxism became secular

    •Western Marxism tries to bring back classical

    Marxism

    • 2 Factors

    • Capitalism Never Fell Apart

    • Neo-Marxists rejected Orthodox Communism

    • People have more power

    Bullet 4- Churches, Civic Groups, Unions, etc

  • Death of Marxism• 1989- Marxism begins to decline

    • Communism is now blended with

    economic capitalism

    •Marxism hasn’t collapsed, Lenin-Stalinism has

    • Social Democracy has emerged in place

    Bullet 1- Tiananmen Square, then fall of USSR

  • Ethical Socialism• Socialism is superior because humans are

    ethical creatures

    • Draws heavily on Christianity

    • Caused socialist revolutions in Latin

    America

    • Collective Ownership of wealth is important

    Bullet 2- “Love thy neighbor”

    Bullet 3- After 1968, church backed poor over dictators

  • Revisionist Socialism• Capitalism wasn’t defective

    • Middle Class was becoming more powerful

    • Want to reform capitalism rather than

    abolish

    • Mixed Economy Good, Economic Management and Welfare State is important

    Bullet 1- Capitalism is both capable and flexible

    Bullet 2-Stock Market

    Bullet 4- Private and Public Ownership, Keynesianism Good, Welfare is key way to reform capitalism

  • Neo-Revisionism/3rd Way

    • Started in 1980s, Western Europe

    • Third way is an active center

    • Top Down Socialism is dead

    • Community and Moral Responsibility

    Bullet 2-State Socialism and Free Market

    Bullet 4- Free for all of free market undermines society

  • Neo-Revisionism/3rd Way

    • Consensus View of Society

    • Social inclusion of classic socialism

    •Welfare of “cradle to grave”

    unacceptable

    • Competition state vital

    Bullet 1-Community ties everyone together

    Bullet 2- Rights, skills, and opportunities to take part in society

    Bullet 3- Focus on socially excluded

    Bullet 4- Improving infrastructure and work force vital to society

  • Socialism in the Global Age

    • Orthodox Communism has been great weakened

    • Pro-capitialism has increased around world

    • Social democracy has struggled

    • Socialism survives because of capitalism

    • Socialism may grow with globalization

    Bullet 3- Economy more globalized, can’t control that, only state

    Bullet 4- Inequality

    Bullet 5- More people exposed