SS6H1 Describe the impact of European contact on Latin America SS6H2 Explain the development of Latin America and the Caribbean from European colonies to independent nations
ELEMENTS Describe the encounter and consequences of the conflict between the Spanish and the Aztecs and Incas and the roles of Cortes, Montezuma, Pizarro, and Atahualpa Explain the impact of the Columbian Exchange on Latin America and Europe in terms of the decline of the indigenous population, agricultural change, and the introduction of the horse. Describe the influence of African slavery on the development of the Americas Describe the influence of the Spanish and the Portuguese on the language and religions of Latin America Explain the Latin American independence movement; include the importance of Toussaint L'Ouverture, Simon Bolivar, and Miguel Hidalgo.
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS How were the Europeans able to conquer the Aztecs and Incas? What roles did Cortez, Montezuma, Pizarro, and Atahualpa play in the Spanish encounter and conquest of the Aztecs and Incas? What were the consequences of Spains conquest of the Aztecs and the Incas? How did Latin America gain independence from Spain, Portugal and France? Why were Toussaint LOuverture, Simon Bolivar and Miguel Hidalgo important in the independence movements of Latin America? How did African slavery influence the development of the Americas? What new technology, ideas, and things did the Europeans introduce to Latin America in the Columbian Exchange? How did the Columbian Exchange lead to the decline of the indigenous population, change agriculture and introduce the horse?
THE EMPIRES OF THE INCAS AND THE AZTECS The Aztecs and Incas were two powerful civilizations that lived in Latin America Aztecs Lived from 1200-1521 Located in the southern part of Mexico Warrior society who was successful with agriculture Built a capital called Tenochtitlan, one of the first modern day cities Citizens were well skilled in many forms of jobs Believed in many gods and built temples to worship them Had about 5 million citizens living there Created the calendar
THE EMPIRES OF THE INCAS AND THE AZTECS Incas Lasted from 1400-1535 Located on the west coast of South America Farming society who advanced methods of planting crops Worshipped many gods, with the sun god being the most important Built a capital called Cuzco, or the City of the Sun Had a social class system, with farmers and nobles as the two classes Citizens were skilled in architecture, including building a major city called Machu Picchu Had plenty of gold in their civilization
THE INCAS AND AZTECS
THE SPANISH AND THE AZTECS In 1519, Hernan Cortes From Spain entered Mexico, searching for Gold The Aztecs thought he was a god, so their ruler, Montezuma II, allowed Cortes and his men to stay in Tenochtitlan The horses, guns, cannons and blades of the Spanish scared the Aztecs Cortes eventually discovered gold and took the Aztecs hostage A rebellion broke out eventually, and the Spanish wiped out the Aztecs by 1521 Montezuma and most of the Aztecs were killed by diseases like smallpox The capital was renamed Mexico City and the Spanish set up their operations there
THE SPANISH AND THE INCAS In 1532, Francisco Pizarro arrived in Peru looking for gold Pizarro invited the emperor or the Incas, Atahualpa, for dinner, but captured him instead Pizarro bribed gold and silver out of Atahualpa, but had him killed anyway Pizarro would conquer the Incas by 1535 He used the Incas as slaves and had them work in his cities and fields Diseases killed many of the Incas, as well as Pizarro using other tribes to help in his battles with the Incas
IMPACT OF THE COLOMBIAN EXCHANGE Colombian Exchange is the name given for the exchange of diseases, crops, goods and animals between Europe and the settlements in Latin America The impact was felt in three ways: Natives were being killed by diseases brought in by the Europeans New goods and crops were brought into the Americas and used for food and trading The horse was introduced, which allowed for better transportation and labor
SLAVERY IN THE AMERICAS When Portugal settled in Brazil, they wanted to grow sugarcane in the area. To get the man power, the Portuguese would bring in African slaves, due to the fact they were immune from diseases. Brazil was the leader in slave labor and the many slaves there would build the empire of the Portuguese in Brazil. Slavery would also be prominent in the Caribbean, as countries like France, The Netherlands, and England would own islands in the Caribbean. They would bring in slaves to help farm their sugarcane and the slave labor in the Caribbean would bring much wealth to the countries back in Europe
MAP OF SLAVERY IN THE AMERICAS
INFLUENCE OF PORTUGAL AND SPAIN LANGUAGERELIGION The native languages of South America and Mexico were replaced by Portuguese and Spanish due to the influence of the explorers Portuguese is in Brazil, while Spanish is everywhere else in Latin America The worshipping of spirits and nature in South America and Mexico was replaced by Christianity after the invasion of the Portuguese and Spanish Catholicism is the main type of Christianity followed
INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA Haiti Known as St. Dominque at the time, Haiti would fight for independence in 1804 A slave rebellion was started in 1791, as slaves would kill their French overseers Former slave Touissant LOuverture led the rebellion and helped gain independence in 1794 LOuverture would also fight off the Spanish and English from taking the island LOuverture would name himself dictator for life and help to rebuild the island Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France, would fight for the island, but withdrew in 1803 after his soldiers got yellow fever Haiti was officially a republic in 1804
INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA South America Many countries in South America fought for independence collectively They were led by Simon Bolivar, who starting in 1810, fought to free South America from the Europeans Bolivar would free countries such as Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and Ecuador Bolivar was nicknamed The Liberator and the country of Bolivia was named after him in respect
INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA Mexico Around 1810, Mexico would begin to call for independence from the Spanish The leader was Miguel Hidalgo, a catholic priest, who said the taxes, taking of land, and slavery by Spain was unfair Hidalgo led farmers and Native Americans to Mexico City, defeating many groups in the process Hidalgo was defeated around 1811, as he was captured and put to death Others continued Hidalgos work and by 1821, Mexico had finally gained its independence Hidalgo today is known as the Father of Mexican Independence